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INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN 

A TEXTBOOK OF PRACTICAL METHODS FOR STUDENTS, 
TEACHERS, AND CRAFTSMEN 



Bv 



WILLIAM H. VARNUM 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF DRAWING AND DESIGN 
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 




THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS 

PEORIA, ILLLXOIS 



Copyright 10 1G by 
Scott, Foresmax and Company 

33 ROLT-127 



Printed in the United Slates of Jmeriea 



V 



rr 



PREFACE 

Place for the Book. As a textbook, Industrial Arts Design 
is a practical guide for designing in wood, clay, and base and precious 
metals. It is intended for individual student use in the High Schools, 
Normal Schools, and Colleges and as a reference book for elementary 
school teachers. Its more complex problems are intended as definite 
helps to the industrial arts designer or craftsman. The wood prob- 
lems are treated with special reference to their adaptability to bench 
and cabinet work. 

Need of the Book. It has been written to fill a decided demand 
for a textbook that shall, without loss of time, directly apply well- 
recognized principles of general design to specific materials and 
problems encountered in the Industrial Arts. A brief description of 
the decorative processes adapted to the materials under discussion 
with the design principles directly applying to these processes, insures 
designs that may be worked out in the studio or shop. It is hoped 
that this provision will eliminate the large number of impractical 
designs that are frequently entirely unfitted to the technic of the craft. 
This lack of mutual technical understanding between the teacher 
of design and the shop work instructor is the cause of friction that it 
is hoped will be removed by the methods advocated in these pages. 

The Author s Motive. It has been the intention to reduce unre- 
lated and abstract theories to a minimum and reach directly rules 
and conclusions that shall be applicable to typical materials in com- 
mon use in the schools and industries. The original conception 
materialized in the publication of a series of articles upon Design 
in the Industrial Arts- Magazine, in 191.). These articles were fav- 
orably received and their results in the schools proved highly satis- 
factory. Through this encouragement, the articles have been 
reprinted in book form, enriched by the addition of illustrations, 
review questions, and three chapters on color with its applications. 

Industrial Arts Design develops the principles of industrial 
design in a new and logical form which, it is believed, will simplify 
the teaching of craft design. Chapters 1 to Y deal with the elemen- 
tary problems confronting the designer as he begins the first steps 
on his working drawing; Chapters VI to V1IT show the methods by 
which he may express his individuality through contour or outline 
enrichment, while Chapters JX to X\TI explain the treatment of 
the most difficult form of decoration, that of surface enrichment. 

The Appendix. The appendix is added to show the manner in 



which the rules may be directly applied to a course of study in either 
pottery or art metal. The present work is not intended to include 
the chemistry of glaze mixing or other technical requirements to 
which reference is made in the appendix; consequently the reader is 
referred to "The Potter's Craft" by C. F. Binns and "Pottery" by 
George J. Cox for fuller explanations of the formulae and technical- 
ities of the craft. 

Source of Principles. The principles herein advocated are directly 
related to architectural design which is to be regarded as the standard 
authority for the industrial arts designer. It was necessary to 
state these principles in the form of sufficiently flexible rules which 
would allow the student to use his own judgment, but at the same 
time, restrict him to the essential principles of good design. 

Rules. This presentation of the principles of design by means of 
flexible rules in concrete form, serves to vitalize design by virtue 
of their immediate application to the material. The rules likewise 
save time for both pupil and instructor. This is regarded as an 
important factor, inasmuch as the amount of time usually allotted to 
classroom teaching of design is limited. 

While these rules are applied to the specific materials, the designer 
may readily adjust them to other materials and find them equally 
applicable. Direct copying of designs from the illustrations is a 
dangerous expedient and is to be discouraged as a form of plagiarism 
which will eventually destroy the student's initiative, originality, 
and reputation for creative work. 

Results. From the tests so far observed, it has been seen that 
under design guidance, the projects become more noticeably indi- 
vidual in character, lighter and better in construction, and more fully 
adjusted to their environment. The student's interest and initiative 
in his work are strengthened, and he completes the truly valuable 
cycle of the educative process of evolving his own idea and crystal- 
lizing it in the completed work. It is hoped that this book will tend 
to develop higher standards of good design in schools, industrial 
establishments, and the home. 

In conclusion, the author expresses his thanks to the following 
for their valuable suggestions and assistance in contributed illus- 
trations: Miss D. F. Wilson, Miss Edna Howard, Miss Elizabeth 
Upham, Miss A. M. Anderson, Mr. J. M. Dorrans, Mr. J. B. Robinson, 
author of "Architectural Composition," and others to whom reference 
is made in the text. 

^^ j- Ti-- • William Harrison Varnum. 

Madison, \\ isconsin. 

April, 1916. 

[■i] 



CONTEXTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. Divisions of Industrial Arts Design 7 

II. The Primary Mass and Its Proportions .... 13 

III. Horizontal Major Divisions of the Primary Mass 19 

IV. Vertical Major Divisions of the Primary Mass . 33 
V. Appendages and the Rules Governing Them ... 43 

VI. Enrichment of the Contours or Outlines of 

Designs in Wood .57 

VII. Enrichment of the Contours or Outlines of 

Designs in Clay 77 

VIII. Enrichment of the Contours or Outlines of 

Designs in Base and Precious Metals 87 

IX. Surface Enrichment of Small Primary Masses in 

Wood 99 

X. Surface Enrichment of Small Primary Masses in 

Wood. (Continued) 117 

XI. Surface Enrichment with Minor Subdivisions of 

Large Primary Masses in Wood 133 

XII. Surface Enrichment of Clay 14,5 

XIII. Surface Enrichment of Precious Metals. Small 

Flat Planes 100 

XIV. Surface Enrichment of Large Primary Masses in 

Base and Precious Metals 179 

XV. Color: Hue, Value, and Chroma: Stains . . . .194 
XVI. Color and Its Relation to Industrial Arts 
Design. Large Surfaces of Wood: Wall and 

Ceiling Areas c 2()l 

XVII. Color and Its Relation to Industrial Arts 

Design. Small Surfaces in ('lay and Metal. . v 209 

Complete Scmmary of Rules *218 

Appendix L 2 L 23 

(a) A Complete* Course of Study for the Applied 
Arts in Thin Base and Precious Metals. Rela- 
tion of the Kules to the Problems t 2 L 24 

(1)) A Complete Course of Study for the Applied 
Arls in Pottery. Relation of the Rules to the 

Problems L 237 

Index L 24.> 



INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN 



Chapter I 



DIVISIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN 



This book has been written with the view of presenting design 
from the standpoint of the industrial arts. An instructor generally 
experiences difficulty in finding the exact word to use when crit- 
icizing a student's drawing. The student has equal difficulty in Non-technical 
understanding the criticism. There is little wonder that he is Criticism 
confused, when the rather ambiguous terms "good-looking/" "ugly," 
"squatty," and '"stiff" are used to express qualities that can be 
expressed only in terms of design. 

The lack of understanding between the pupil and the teacher may 
be compared to the attitude of the average individual "who knows 
what he likes." He is on an equally insecure footing regarding 
industrial design. His reason for liking or disliking a certain thing 
may depend upon some whim or fancy, the popular fashion of the 
times, or a desire to possess a duplicate of something he has seen. 
As a consumer with purchasing power, he should have the ability Intelligent 
to analyze intelligently the contents of catalogs and store windows Analysis 
with the thought of securing the best in industrial art — something 
that may be accepted as standard one hundred years from now. 

It is, therefore, the intention to present design of industrial 
character in its simplest form, freed from technicalities or ambiguous 
statements. It is intended to give the average individual not par- 
ticularly interested in drawing or design a knowledge of the subject, 
based upon principles that have survived for hundreds of years in 
architectural monuments and history. 

It is possible that the presentation of these principles may enable R esu it s of 
the instructor in I lie public schools to guide his pupil away from the Clear 
heavy and expensive stereotyped designs, and by clear and simple Criticism 
criticism, lead him to better forms of construction. He inav also be 




, A SROUP OF OBJECTS WiXH Thl& einpH^^iO:., £>L-A^t~b r^Aitnuv 




Plate 1 



helped to lead the pupil to design problems in harmony with his 
home surroundings and thus avoid the introduction of an inharmo- 
nious element into what may possibly be a harmonious setting. The 
teacher, pupil, or layman should use his knowledge of the subject as 
a basis for criticism or appreciation of the field of the industrial arts. 

In order to start successfully upon a design, it is necessary to 
know what qualities a good industrial article should possess. Whether 
one is designing a bird-house, a chocolate set, or a gold pendant, 
the article must meet three needs: (1) It must be of service to the 
community or to the individual; ( L 2) It must be made of some 
durable material; (3) It must possess beauty of proportion, outline, 
and color. 

Ruskin said that a line of beauty must also be a line of service. 
The "stream line body" in automobile construction is the result of 
the automobile maker's attempt to combine beauty with service. 
This is the attitude that should govern the union of beauty and 
service in all of the industrial arts. 

There are three divisions or phases in the designing of a struc- 
ture and its enrichment. These are: (1) Structural Design; 
('2) Contour Enrichment; (3) Surface Enrichment. Some objects 
are carried through only one of these divisions, while others arc 
developed through all three of them. 

Plate 1, illustrative of the first division, deals naturally enough 
with the planning of the constructive or utilitarian lines of an object 
and its parts. It may be termed Structural or Constructive Design. 
Questions of how high or how long an object should be, to harmonize 
with its width, the proper placing of rails, shelves, and brackets, 
the determination of the greatest and least diameter of vase forms 
have to be decided in this period of Proportions and Space Relations. 

The knowledge of tools and materials, and of the manner in 
which they may be used for constructive purposes, influences the 
solution of these questions and others which we shall shortly discuss. 
Strictly utilitarian objects are seldom carried past this stage of 
development. 

Plate c 2 indicates the next logical division — Contour Enrichment 
— or the period of the enrichment of the structural outline or con- 
tour. The bounding lines, or contours, of the structure may be 



Requirements 
of an Indus- 
trial Problem 



Divisions in 
Design 
Evolution and 
Enrichment 



First 

Major 

Division 



Second 

Major 

Division 



10 




Plate 2 



11 



enriched in many ways, as, for example, curving certain portions 
to soften the severity of the plain structure. The garden urn and 
small stool have contours treated in this manner. Chippendale, 
Sheraton, and Hepplewhite furniture, simplified to the accepted 
range of shop technic, vary the straight lines of mission furniture 
and come within the possible developments of this division. 

The cement fence post at C, Plate 2, is a strict utilitarian problem 
without interest. The post at D, enriched by a bevel, has equal 
utilitarian and increased aesthetic interest and value. 

Plate 3 illustrates the last division of evolution and concerns 
itself with the application of design to the surface of the otherwise 
complete structure. This division is commonly called applied 
surface design or decorative design. It is readily seen that this 
division should be considered after the structure has been carefully 
planned. To separate this division from the period of structural 
or contour enrichment we will call it Surface Enrichment. 

It may be seen from the foregoing discussion that a design may 
be carried through the following steps: (1) Blocking in the enclosing 
lines of the design, as at Figure B, Plate 2, adding to this whatever 
may be needed for structural purposes, keeping the lines as nearly 
vertical and horizontal as possible; (2) Enriching and varying the 
outline or contour. It is well for elementary wood workers to use 
this step with extreme caution, while less reserve is necessary in 
clay and metal; (3) After careful consideration in determining the 
need of additional decoration, the last step, surface enrichment, 
should be used. The following chapters will take up these steps 
in the order stated above. 

The ideal method of developing the principles set forth in this 
chapter includes correlated activity in I lie shop by working out 
the project in the required material. As the technic of the indi- 
vidual improves, the larger range of design principles will be found 
to accompany and parallel his increasing skill. 



Effects of 

Second 

Division 



Third 

Major 

Division 



Steps in 

Design 

Evolution 



Ideal 
Correlation 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. What throe requirements should lie met in a well designed industrial article? 

2. Stale three major divisions in industrial arts design. 

3. Stale briefly the problems to be considered in each division. 

4. What is the last and ideal step for the designer? 



12 




Plate 3 



Chapter II 



THE PRIMARY MASS AND ITS PROPORTIONS 



Upon first observing a building, one seldom notices details of 
structure. He sees the large mass as it is silhouetted against the 
sky. Nearer approach discloses mouldings, cornices, and doorways; 
while careful analytical study shows the technical points of con- 
struction. The architect, in his original planning, thinks in terms 
of masses, widths, and heights, disregarding at first the details and 
color. As architecture stands for parent design principles and repre- 
sents some of the world's best examples of composition and design, 
industrial design should be based upon the best examples of archi- 
tectural design. To a certain degree, also, the methods of the 
industrial arts designer should be those of the architect. 

It is necessary to think at first of our problem as a single mass 
or solid, bounded by enclosing dimensions of width, height, and 
thickness. Details like a mirror, handles, brackets, or knobs may 
project outside of this mass, but for the time being, they may be 
disregarded. Figure B, Plate 2, shows this manner of thinking, 
and will enable us to regard the problem as a big, simple mass so 
that the entire object, unobstructed by small details, may be seen. 

This is the method of thinking about the problem which should 
precede the drawing. To further describe this mass, which will be 
called the single or Primary Mass, it is necessary to think of the 
intended service of the project. A rather hazy idea of making a 
vase ()]■ a stool to be put to no particular use, may have been the 
original motive. Now the exact service should be defined as it will 
have a marked effect upon the shape of this primary mass. 

Rule la. A primary mass must be cither vertical or horizontal 
according to the intended .service, unless prohibited by technical require- 
ments. Service is an important factor inasmuch as it limits the 
intended use of the mass. A mass is horizontal when its largest 
dimension is horizontal. "When the horizontal dimension of this 



The 

Architectural 
Method 



The 

Industrial 
Arts Method 



The Primary 
Mass 



Service 



in 



14 



AMALY5I5-OF • TH£- PRIMARY- MA50 




A HORIZONTAL PRIMARY MASS' 



• A vert i gal. PS! mapv mass- 
fig • 2. • 





•A HOP21ZOMTAL PRIMARY MASS 
FIG. • ^ 
THE. MAIM STRUCTURAL. 
LIMES DETE.RMIME THE. 
CHAFJACTER Or TH El "PRIM- 
ARY MASS- THESE. LIMES 
A RE !HD IC ATE.D 3 Y D AR K 
5A.MD5 OR DIMEHSIOMLIHE5 
1H THE. iLLUSTRATrOMS- 
TH5EE. Divisions OR 
CLASSES OF MATERIAL 
HAVE 5£EM EMPHASISED - 



>A VERTICAL PRIMARY MASS 
FIC-. • $ • 



Plate 4 



15 



mass is reduced until the main vertical dimension is longer than 
the main horizontal one, it becomes a vertical mass. As an example, 
a davenport is generally a horizontal mass intended to hold a number 
of people. When the mass is narrowed to the point where the verti- 
cal dimension exceeds the horizontal, it becomes a chair for one 
person. A low bowl may be intended for pansies, but as soon as 
the service changes and we design it for goldenrod, it becomes a 
vertical mass. The fable of the fox who, upon being invited to dine 
with the stork, found the tall vases unfitted for his use illustrates 
the change of mass with the change of service. 

Figures 1 and 4, Plate 4, are examples of horizontal masses with 
the dark lines indicating the dominance of the horizontal lines and 
planes. The shelter house contains a long bench, making necessary 
the long horizontal lines of the building. The calendar holder 
has to be a horizontal mass because of the restrictions imposed by 
the shape of the calendar pad. 

Figures 2 and 3 are vertical masses. The vase is intended for 
tall flowers, while the chair, as has already been mentioned, must 
meet the needs of a single person. Utility and service then have 
been found to give the primary mass a given direction or dominance. 

The designer now represents this mass by drawing a rectangle 
similar to the block outline of Figure B, Plate 2. It is now necessary 
to see if the foundation stones of this rectangle have been laid cor- 
rectly; in other words, to test the proportions of the primary vertical 
or horizontal mass. 

Rule lb. A primary mass should have Ike ratio of one to three, 
three to four, three to fire, fire to eight, seven to ten, or some similar 
proportion difficult for the eye to detect readily and analyze. Proportions 
are generally expressed in terms of ratios. A surface of five by eight 
inches would give a ratio of five to eight ; ten by sixteen feet is reduc- 
ible to the same ratio. Certain ratios are monotonous and offend 
the eye by their lack of variety. Ratios such as one to one or one to 
two are of this class and should be avoided. If these ratios 
could speak they would resemble people talking in a low monotonous 
lone of voice. 

Certain other ratios an 4 weak and indeterminate, showing a 
lack of clear thinking. They are like 4 people with no definite or clean- 



Horizontal 
and Vertical 
Primary 
Masses 



Drawing 
the Primary 
Mass 



Proportions 
of the 
Primary 
Masses 



1G 



Proportionate • Ratios 
■ process • of -desigm ins" 




Fl&- 5 • 

EXAMPLE OF Uti SATISFACTORY PRO 
PORTIONATE RATIOS • • • - ! t^" i ■ I 3 
AND ) ■ 2. HAVE 8E.EN USED AS THE 
"3A.515 OF THE PRIMARY MASS- 



FIG. • 6 • 
EXAMPLE OF 5ATI5FACTORV PRO' 
PORTION - • • 1 '. 3£ -r.3 AMD 3 '. 5" 
SHOW DEFINITE THINKING IN THE 
TERMS OF DESIGNi- 




FIG 

Definite thought im design requires a 
knowledge of the. l.a.v/5 of design; a knowledge 
of the technical limitations of tools amd mater- 
ials amd the application of these facts to 
a concrete moof_l or workng drawim 6 
of the project • * • 



Plate 5 



17 



cut ideas upon a subject they discuss. Examples in this class show 
ratios of two to two and one-eighth, or three to three and one-fourth, 
neither positively square nor frankly rectangular. They hide 
around the corner, as it were, waiting to be anything. Figure 5, 
Plate o, is an example of unsatisfactory proportionate ratios of 
the primary mass. The blotting' tablet is nearly square, while the 
candlestick and sconce, which should have been designed with 
strongly vertical masses, lack the type of definite thinking that 
results in a decided vertical dimension. 

Disregarding the improvement in teehnie. Figure (> shows prob- 
lems designed with a definite knowledge of proportion. The metal 
objects are refined in their dimensions, and pleasing to the eye. 
Tests have been made with the idea of determining what the eye 
considers perfectly natural and agreeable proportion. This has been 
found to be the ratio of two to three. Consequently, it is clear 
why Figure C shows objects more pleasing than those in Figure 5. 

It may be felt that too much space is being given to this sub- 
ject of proportion. It should be remembered, however, that the 
industrial arts are intimately associated with daily life and that 
unless proportions are pleasing to our aesthetic sense, many articles 
of common use shortly become intolerable. 

This preliminary portion of the designer's task has been given 
to thinking out the problem and drawing one rectangle. Then 1 is a 
tendency to start the design by pushing the pencil over the paper 
with a forlorn hope that a design may be evolved with little mental 
effort. This should be regarded as illogical and unworthy of the 
desired end. A rectangle of the most prominent surface of the prob- 
lem, based upon the desired service of the project, and the best 
proportions which our knowledge of design and understanding of the 
limitations of construction will permit, should be the final result of 
the first study. From now on through the succeeding steps, the 
details of the problem will become more and more clear, as the tech- 
nical limitations of the tools and materials governing the designer's 
ideas and controlling and shaping the work are belter understood, 
until all governing factors become crystallized in the form of a 
working drawing or model. This is a strictly professional practice 
as illustrated in Figure 7, which shows the skilled Rookwood poller 



Unsatisfac- 
tory Ratios 



Preliminary 
Thinking in 
Terms of 
Design 



18 



developing a vase form, the definite embodiment of correct thinking 
in terms of the material which is constantly before him. 



SUMMARY OF RULES 

Rule la. A primary viass i?iust be either vertical or horizontal according 
to the intended service, unless prohibited by technical requirements. 

Rule lb. A primary ?nass should hare the ratio of one to three, three to four, 
three to fire, fire to eight, seven to ten, or some similar proportion difficult for the 
eye to readily detect and analyze. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. How does the architect first plan his elevations? 

2. How should the designer first think of his problem? 

3. Define a horizontal primary mass. 

4. Define a vertical primary mass. 

5. State some desirable ratios to be used in designing the proportions of the 

primary mass. Explain. 



Chapter III 

HORIZONTAL MAJOR DIVISIONS OF 
THE PRIMARY MASS 



In the second chapter we discussed the nature of the primary 
mass in its relation to the intended service or duty it has to perform. 
It was found that the demands of service usually cause the primary 
mass to be designed with either a strong vertical or horizontal tendency. 

It now becomes imperative to carry the designing processes still 
further and divide the vertical or horizontal primary mass into 
parts or divisions, demanded either by structural requirements 
or because the appearance of the object would be materially improved 
by their presence. This latter point is sometimes referred to as 
the aesthetic requirement of the problem. There are two simple 
types of divisions, those crossing the primary mass horizontally 
and those crossing the primary mass in a vertical direction. This 
chapter will be limited to the subject of horizontal divisions. 

If a city purchases a piece of land for park purposes, presumably 
a landscape architect is assigned the task of laying out the paths 
and drives. lie does Ihis by crossing his plan at intervals with lines 
to represent paths connecting important points. Under favorable 
conditions the architect is free to curve his path to suit his ideas. 
He has considerable freedom in selecting his design but the paths 
or roads must dip and curve in sympathy with the contour of the 
land and in accord with the aesthetic requirements. 

While the landscape designer has a broad latitude in his treatment 
of land divisions, the industrial designer or architect is restricted, on 
the other hand, by the structural requirements of the object and by 
his materials. He must cross his spaces or areas by horizontal 
shelves, or rails, or bands of metal that hold the structure together. 
As architecture is of fundamental importance in industrial design, 
let us see what the architect has in mind in designing a structure. 



Divisions 
of the 
Primary 
Mass 



Nature and 
Need of 
Horizontal 
Space 
Divisions 



1!»] 



20 



STEPS ILLIU3TRATIM6 THE. DEVELOPMENT OF HORIZOMTAL 
SPACE DIVISIONS FROM PRIMARY HA55 TO THE STRUCTURE* 

• DEMONSTRATION IN CUSS i(WOOOl 

problem: a music bench for. two players 




3'-2* 



RULES Id lb 



ESTABLISHING THE DIMENSION 
REQUIRED BY SERVICE IE- 
THE STANDARD HEIGHT • 



ESTABLISHING. THE LENGTH 
OF THE. OOM1MAMT OR FRONT 
SURFACE* RATIO 5". & k 



DESIGNING. THE PRIMARY MA56 





t 


ROLe • 2b 






" 




ESTABLISHING THE HORIZONTAL 
SPACINGS OF THE STRUCTURE' 
SEVERAL TRIAL DESIGNS SHOULD 

BE DRAWN • 



ESTABLISHING THE CON - 
STROCTJVE ELEMENTS BASED 
UPON THE BEST OF THE 
PRECEDING DESIGNS- 



RATIO 4,:S 




* — « »-~ «f — » 

l'-3" J 



THE COMPLETED WORKING DRAWING • TO BE 

fully dimensioned and if practicable . 
drawn full Size on duplex or mam i la paper- 



Plate G 



"21 



The architect has the surface of the ground with which to start. 
This gives him a horizontal line as the base of his building. He con- 
siders it of major importance in his design. We find him crossing 
the front of his building with horizontal moulding or long bands 
of colored brick, paralleling the base line and otherwise interestingly 
dividing the vertical face of the front and sides. His guide is the 
bottom line of his primary mass or the line of the ground which binds 
the different parts of the building into a single unit. It can be readily 
seen that if he shifted the position of his mouldings up or down 
with the freedom of the landscape architect in locating his roads, 
he would not be planning his horizontal divisions in sympathy with 
the structural requirements of his primary mass. 

These horizontal divisions or lines have a tendency to give appar- 
ent added length to an object. Thus by their judicious use a designer 
may make a building or room look longer than it really is. 

Let us now turn to the simpler objects with which we may be 
more directly concerned. The piano bench has horizontal lines 
crossing it, giving an effect quite similar to that of horizontal mould- 
ings crossing a building. There may also be ornamental inlaid 
lines crossing the bench and intended to beautify the design, but it is 
to be remembered that at present we are considering the structural 
divisions only. 

Plate (> represents a concrete example of the methods to be used 
in designing the horizontal divisions of a piano bench. The steps 
may be divided as follows: 

(a) The height of a piano bench may be determined either 
from measurement of a similar bench or from one of the books on 
furniture design now on the market. The scale of one inch or one 
and one-half inches to the foot may be adopted. Two horizontal 
lines should be drawn, one for the bottom and one for the lop of 
I he bench. The distance between these lines we will arbitrarily 
fix at twenty inches. 

(6) Many objects are designed within rectangles which enclose 
their main or over-all proportions. With this in view, and keeping 
in mind the width of the bench necessary to the accommodation of 
two players and the requirements of a well proportioned primary 
mass (Rule lb), the lines are now drawn completing the rectangular 



Architectural 

Horizontal 

Divisions 



Designing 
Objects with 
Horizontal 
Divisions 



•Applied amo Comstructive Design * 

primciple i : a* proportlom-5 ofthe single, primary ma55with 

domimamce of the horiz.omtal division * 
primciple. 2 : a- relatioh of horizontal subdivisions • 
problem: horizontal .space. divisions- cla55e5 \'z'3' 



PULE 2-cx 



• DOMIMAnT SECTION 
IM EITHER UPPER OR 
LOWER PORTIOM • 



TWO HORIZONTAL DIVISIOM.S 
PRIMARY MA55ES 




THREE HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS 
3 * 3:5 • 5 :e> ETC- 



THE PRIMARY MA55 



CLAS5 • I • 
WOO O 
THREE. HORIZ.OMTAL DIVISIONS 



A HORIZONTAL DIVISION! 




THE PRii-iARv nA£,& 

L-5 



CLASS ZCLAX:CLA553'METAL 
Two HOP?i"Z.or-i-r/\u iswisioms 



DRAW THREE. DE5IC-.M5 IM A SELECTED CLASS • DE5IGM5 OF REC- 
TILINE.AR 50UD5 SHOULD IMCLUDL PROMT AMD SIDE VIEWS- 
COMPAC5 CORBELS ARE. TO BE AVOIDED UN PROFILES OF CUR- 
VILINEAR FORM5 IM CLAS5t5 2.-3 
DESIGNS SHOULD HAVE. A OOM\H ANCL OF THE HORIZONTAL PROPORTION 



Plate 7 



23 



boundaries of the primary mass. The limitations of service and 
the restrictions of good designing give the width of the primary 
mass so designed as three feet and two inches, with a ratio of height 
to length of five to eight and one-half. It is simpler to design first 
the most prominent face of the object to be followed by other views 
later in the designing process. 

(c) By observing benches similar to the one being designed it 
will be seen that the horizontal divisions will take the form of a rail 
and a shelf, making two crossings of the primary mass dividing it into 
three horizontal spaces. Several trial arrangements of these struc- 
tural elements are now made with the thought of making them 
conform to the rule governing three horizontal spaces. Rule c 2b. 
We shall later discuss this rule and its applications fully. 

(c/) By selecting the best sketch of many which the designer 
will make he has the basis for the application of Rule L 2b for the struc- 
tural elements. The project now begins to take on concrete form. 
The top board may project slightly beyond the primary mass without 
materially affecting the value of the designed proportions. 

(e) The last step is the designing of the side view in relation 
to the front view. This enables the designer to comprehend the 
project as a whole. It is strongly urged that the final or shop 
drawing be of full size. In more elaborate designs the finer propor- 
tions are lost in the process of enlargement from a small sketch, 
often hurriedly executed in the shop. Again much time is lost by 
necessary enlargement, whereas a full size curved detail may be 
quickly transferred to wood by carbon paper or by holes pricked in 
the paper. It is not expensive or difficult to execute full size draw- 
ings; it is in accord with shop practice and the custom should be 
encouraged and followed on all possible occasions. See Figure l() L 2a. 

The process of designing round objects is identical to that just 
described as illustrated by the low round bowl in Plate 7. It should 
be designed in a rectangle of accepted proportions. Rule lb. The 
primary mass may have excellent proportions and yet the vase or 
bowl may remain devoid of interest. It may be commonplace. 

As will shortly be shown, the rules governing horizontal divisions 
serve as a check on the commonplace. A horizontal division gen- 
erally marks the point where the outward swell of the vase contour 



Designing 
Objects with 
Horizontal 
Divisions — 

(Continued) 



Value of a 
Full Size 
Drawing 



24] 



•Horizontal 5pace_ Divisions cf the Primary Mass ih Wood • 




_DOMINArtT HORI70MTAL J 

PROPORTIOM 



H^f 



Fig -8 




Pie- S- 



A HORIZOMTAL MASS WITH 
THREE! HORIZONTAL SPACE. OlVi^lOHS 



•A VERTICAL MA55 WITH TWO 
HORIZONTAL SPACE. DIVISIOINC5 * 

* STRUCTURAL HEEDS SUPPLY THE. HORIXOHTAU LI HE S 

FOF? THIS -TYPE. O (= 3PA>CIH<£» * 




fig- 10- 

THE HORIXOrMTAL. PRIM AR.V MASS AT-'a" HAS 
BEEH QIVIOED "INTO THREE EQUAL AHD ONE UlH- 
EQUAL DIVISIONS' BY OM ITTIHG. THE CENTRAL 
DlV|-blQN,GREATERUHIT>'t5 SECURED AT**B*" 



FlCn- »l * 
A VERTICAL MASS WITH 
THREE POORLY SPACED 'DIVIS- 
IONS AT-A- CORRECTED 
BY PRINCIPLE ZdAT : 'B-' 



Plate 8 



[35] 

reaches its maxinnim width. If this widest point in the primary 

mass (X-Plate 7) is pleasingly located between the top and bottom 

of a vase form the contour will be found satisfactory. 

It is possible to continue ad infinitum with these illustrations A ... . 

. . ,. . . . . Architectural 

but horizontal space divisions are nearly always present in some Precedent for 

form, due to structural necessity or aesthetic requirements. It is an Horizontal 

easy matter to say that these lines must divide the primary mass into Divisions 

"interesting" spaces, well related to each other, or "'pleasingly 

located," but the designer must have some definite yet flexible rule 

to govern his work. From the analysis of many famous historic 

buildings and Mell designed industrial projects it has been found 

that all horizontal masses may be analyzed as* dividing the primary 

mass into either two or three divisions or spaces, regardless of the 

complexity of the project. 



Analysis of Horizontal Space Divisions 

Rule 2a. If the primary mass is divided into two horizontal divi- 
sions, the dominance should be cither in the upper or the lower section. 
Plate 7 shows this division of the primary mass — the simplest 
division of the space. A space divided just half way from top to 
bottom would be monotonous and expressive of the ratio of one 
to one. This arrangement as we have already discovered in the 
second chapter is not conducive to good design. 

By the stated rule, L 2a, the varied adjustment of this double 
horizontal division affords all possible latitude for constructive 
purposes. It is better to place the division in such a manner that 
the upper division (or lower) will not appear pinched or dwarfed 
by comparison with the remaining area. Thus a ratio of one to 
three, or three to five, or five to eight is belter than a ratio of one to 
one or one to eighteen, but there is no exact or arbitrary ruling 
on this point. 

Figure 8 illustrates two horizontal divisions in wood construction 
and also the freedom of choice as to exact proportions. The eye 
will be found a good judge of the proper spacings subject to the 
limitations already mentioned. 

It is best to keep the design within the limits of two horizontal 



Two 

Horizontal 
Space 
Divisions 



Two 

Horizontal 
Divisions 
in Wood 



26 



HOR\ 2-OriTAL SPACE DIVISIONS OF THE. PRIMARS' K1AS5 IN CLAY 




ne 



A WALL 5URFACE DIVIDED INTO TWO HORIZOHTAL DIVI5IOM5 • THEHOOO 
OF THE: FIRE PLACE AriD THE: DOOR. ECHO BY SIMILAR PROPORTIOH5 
THIS DIV\SIOH • UMITY THU5 5ECUEEO ISYARIED BY THE. THREE D1VI.SIOM "5 PAC- 
ING OF THE. PAHE-ULINS • 

POTTERY FOR^S SHOULD AT FIRST BE 
UMlTEDTQTWO H0R.IZOHTAJL DIVISIONS 




MOTE THE TRAM 3 
LM"10N OF TWO 
H0R12.0HTAL 01 V 
I5I0M3 FROM 

HT LIME 






^ POIMT OF 6REATE5T WIDTH 

A 
__^ 

WELL PROPORTIOHED T"tO-\4-- p"l G 

SPACE. Divisions AT?E. APPLICABLE 

TO AH-Y MATERIAL* HORIZOMTAL DtVi<SION«S INVASE FORMS 
MARPT THE. TOIMT OF <SREATTEST O^ LEAST WIDTH • THE 
HOt^lZOMTAL DIVISION OF FI6-J3-HOW BECOMES THEVv'IDEST POINT 
OF FIG- 14-- 



Plate 9 



space divisions in designing cylindrical clay forms, particularly 
in the elementary exercises. Enough variety will be found to make 
pleasing arrangements, and the technical results obtained by two 
divisions are much better than those obtained from a greater number 
of divisions. 

Figures 14, 15, and 16, Plate 9, are clay forms will] the dominance 
placed in either the upper or lower portion of the primary mass. 
Figure 13 has been used to illustrate the fact that horizontal space 
division principles are applicable to any material. The horizontal 
divisions in Figure 13 are due to structural needs. A horizontal 
line carries this division across to Figure 14, a clay vase. The 
horizontal division line now becomes the one which marks the 
widest part of the vase. It gives the same relation between the 
top and bottom horizontal spaces as in Figure 13. It marks an 
aesthetic point in the design of the vase, or a variation of the contour, 
introduced by reason of its effect upon the beauty of the vase, not 
called for by the needs of actual service. 

A musical composition is often played in an orchestra first by 
the wood instruments, taken up and repeated by the brasses, then by 
the strings, and finally played as an harmonious whole by the entire 
orchestra. There is a close parallel in Figure 12, an adaptation of 
one of Gustav Stickley's designs. The two-division rule is used 
in the relations of the plaster and wainscoting; again in the plaster 
over, and the cement or tile around the fireplace. It is repeated in 
the arrangement of the copper and cement of the fireplace facing 
and hood and in the door panels. By repeating again and again 
similar space divisions the wall space becomes a unified and harmoni- 
ous whole. Variety is secured by the introduction of three horizontal 
divisions in the details of the wainscoting. This method of repeating 
similar space divisions is called "echoing" and is one of the most 
effective means known for securing the effect of unity. 

The horizontal subdivisions in metal are usually made for service. 
Figures 17, IS, and 19, Plate 10, are examples of such divisions. The 
location of (he clock I'aee in Figure IS calls for (he placing of its 
horizontal axis in accordance with Rule 2a. The lamp in Figure 
19 shows an instance where the entire design once divided by Rule 2a, 
mav be again subdivided into a similar series of divisions. This 



Two 

Horizontal 
Divisions 
in Clay 



Two 

Horizontal 
Divisions 
in Metal 



28 



HORIZONTAL 5PACE. 01V151OH5 IM METAL" 




THE SHADE 15 AM ADDITIONAL 
MA55 BUT IS INCLUDED UMDER 
THE RULE' 




Fig- r8' 



PIC.-ZI- 




ricn-22- 

EXAMPLE.5 OF THE. IACIC 
OF VARIETY IM HORIZON- 
TAL £»UFJOIVI5IOMS • 
CLA5S 3 




.^^is!*? 2 : 




FIG * Z-4-- 
NO VARIETY IM WIDTHS OF TOP AMD BOTTOM 



Plate 10 



29 



arrangement is quite similar to the system of repetitions seen in 
Figure 12 and termed "echoing" the original divisions. 

Rule 2b. If the primary mass is divided into three horizontal 
divisions or sections, the dominance should be placed in the center 
section with varying widths in the upper and lower thirds. 

When it becomes necessary to divide the primary mass into more 
than two sections the designer's problem becomes more difficult. 
With the addition of a greater number of horizontal divisions there 
is a manifest tendency for the design to become cut up into so many 
small sections that the simplicity of the whole mass is lost. Here, as 
elsewhere, that principle which we call unity or the quality of " holding 
together" is necessary and should be the constant test of the design. 
The instant any part of the design seems to fly apart from the main 
mass it becomes the designer's duty to simplify the design or pull the 
parts together and thus restore the lost unity. 

As a restriction against loss of unity it is necessary to group all 
of the minor horizontal divisions into a system of two or three large 
horizontal divisions. Referring' to Rule 2b, it is seen that when three 
divisions are used, it becomes the practice to accentuate the center 
section by making it larger. This arrangement is designed to give 
weight to the center portion and by this big stable division to hold 
the other subdivisions together and in unity. 

Two horizontal masses and one vertical mass shown in Figures 
i), 10, and 11, Plate 8, illustrate the application of this three-division 
rule to wood construction. It is seen that the construction of rails, 
doors, and shelves is responsible for the fixing of all of these divisions. 
It may also be seen that three divisions are applicable to either the 
vertical or the horizontal primary mass. Figure 10 illustrates the 
violation of this type of spacing at the point A, where the shelves 
are no more pleasingly arranged than the rounds of a ladder. Later 
on we shall be able to rearrange these shelves in a pleasing manner 
but at present it is better to relieve the monotony by omitting the 
center shelf. This applies the three division rule to the satisfactory 
appearance of the desk at />. 

Similar monotony in spacing is seen in the screen. Figure 11. 
The correction in /> appeals at once as a far more satisfactory arrange- 
ment than that secured by placing the cross bar half way up as in A. 



Three 
Horizontal 
Space 
Divisions 



Three 
Horizontal 
Divisions 
in Wood 



30 



Three 
Horizontal 
Divisions 
in Clay 



Three 
Horizontal 
Divisions 
in Metal 



Freehand 
Curves 



There are no infallible rules for this readjustment beyond those 
already stated. The eye must in part be depended upon to guide 
the artistic sense aright. 

It is suggested that it is desirable to keep clay forms within the 
limitations of two divisions. Rectangular posts, pedestals, and 
other vertical forms in cement may be developed by the application 
of Rule 2a or 2b, if care is taken to group all minor divisions well 
within the limitations of these rules. 

The statement just made in reference to simplified groupings is 
illustrated in the candlestick and cup in Figures 20 and 21, Plate 10. 
The construction based upon the three functions performed by the 
cup, the handle, and the base, suggests the use of these hori- 
zontal divisions. The minor curves have been subordinated to, 
and kept within, these three divisions. The final result gives a 
distinct feeling of unity impossible under a more complex grouping. 
The Greek column will afford an architectural illustration of a similar 
grouping system. 

The lathe bed of Figure 22 shows one of innumerable examples 
of space violations in the industrial arts. A slight lowering of 
the cross brace would add materially to the appearance and strength 
of the casting. Figure 23 is a copper box with the following more or 
less common faults of design: commonplace ratio of length and 
width (2 : 1) partially counteracted, however, by a more pleasing 
ratio of the vertical dimension, equal spacing in the width of cover 
of box and box body, and equal spacing of the hinges of the box 
from the ends of the box and from each other. By applying the 
two and three horizontal division rules these errors may be 
avoided. 

Figure 24 shows a low bowl with a compass curve used in designing 
the contour. This has brought the widest part of the design in the 
exact center of the bowl which makes it commonplace. In addition 
to this the top and bottom are of the same width, lacking variety 
in this respect. Correction is readily made by applying a freehand 
curve to the contour, raising or lowering the widest point (F), at 
the same time designing the bottom either larger or smaller than 
the top. 



31 



INSTRUCTION SHEET 



Plate 7 is a sheet suggestive of the application of Rules la, lb, 2a, and 2b, 
with an indication of the type of problem to be required. The steps of the 
designing processes in either wood (class 1), clay (class 2), or metal (class 3), 
are summarized as follows: 



SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS 

(a) Construction of the rectangle representing the vertical or horizontal char- 
acter of the primary mass with desirable proportions. It is better to 
select a typical view (Plate (i, D), preferably a front elevation. 

(6) Subdivide this rectangle into two or three structural sections; horizontal 
in character. Make two or three trial freehand sketches for varied 
proportions and select the most pleasing one in accordance with Rules la, 
lb, 2a, and 2b. 

(c) Translate the selected sketch to a full size mechanical drawing or at least 

to a reasonably large scale drawing. The structural elements: i.e., legs, 
rails, posts, etc., should be added and other additional views made. 

(d) Dimension and otherwise prepare the drawing for shop purposes. 

(e) Construct the project. 



SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 

Design a nasturtium bowl, applying Rules la, 11), 2a. 

Design a writing table 2 feet u' inches high with three horizontal divisions. 



SUMMARY OF RULES 

Rule 2a. If the primary mass is divided into two horizontal divisions, the 
dominance should be cither in the upper or the lower section. 

Rule 2b. // the primary mass is divided into three horizontal divisions or 
sections, the dominance should be placed in the center section with varying widths 
in the upper and lower thirds. 



REVIEW QUESTION'S 

1. State two methods of subdividing the primary mass. 

2. Define the nature and need of horizontal space divisions. 

.'{. Give five steps to be used in designing a foot stool or piano bench. 

4. What point constitutes a horizontal division in the contour of a simple clay 

bowl? 

5. State the 1 rub 1 governing two horizontal space divisions and furnish illus- 

trations in wood, clay, and metal. 

(i. Give the rule governing three horizontal space divisions and supply illus- 
trations in wood, clay, and metal. 

7. State five steps in the designing of a project in the industrial arts involving 
the use of horizontal structural divisions. 



[ 33 ] 



♦ Applied amo Cohstructive Deoigm • 
principle 3! vertical space. d1v15iohs of the single, horv prirtarv roa55- 
pRoe.LE.r-i: vertical sub Divisions us classes 1-2- 3-thexareu<5edto 

BREAKORVAEV LARGE AREAS OF HORIIOMTAU OR VCRTICAL I^A35E5' 



TWO DIVISIONS- V 





DOMlMAnT — 
3ECTIOM 

B 

















THREE DIVISIONS - H • 




ItjiLbdrld 



■ f. Br j», i Ofc. 



CLASS »V- 

ONE 



CLA55 S" 
TWO 



D 



DD 



ENRICHED- V- 




CLASS I • H 

THREE 




CLAS5 



ioc 



_T_H£J21i 



JpjL 



CL/^55 3 • riETAL 



TO I 



DRAW THREE DESIGNS IN ONE. OF THE DE5IGHATED CLA55E5' 
OES1GM-5 5HOULD HAVE A OtOTIHCT OOMINAMCE OF- EITHE.R 
V OR H AMD INCLUDE. I- 2. AMD 3 VERTICAL DlVISIOMCS - 

THIS SHEET IS INTEHDELD TO SHOW THE TTPE. OF PROBLEM IK 
THREE MATERIALS A3 A GAUGE FOR POSSIBLE CLASS ASSIGNMENTS' 



Plate: 11 



Chapter IV 

VERTICAL MAJOR DIVISIONS OF 
THE PRIMARY MASS 



The design of the primary mass lias now been considered under 
Rules la and lb, and its horizontal divisions under Rules 2a 
and 2b. The next logical step is the consideration of the nature of 
the lines that cross the primary mass in a vertical direction. In the 
original planning of the primary mass it was found that the hori- 
zontal bounding lines and the horizontal divisions were parallel to 
the base line of an object and that the base line was necessary to 
ensure stability. Vertical lines are necessary and equally import- 
ant to give the needed vertical support to an object. 

So accustomed is the eye to vertical lines in tree trunks, tall 
buildings, and thousands of other examples that the upward eye 
movement in viewing an object, having a predominance of vertical 
elements, seemingly adds to its height. 

The designer thus has a most useful device with which to increase 
the apparent height of an object that, for structural or other reasons, 
must in reality not have great height. Chapter III drew attention 
to the influence of horizontal lines on a project. Vertical lines on an 
object are found to produce an analogous effect vertically. 

Gothic cathedral builders used the vertical line, repeated again 
and again in buttresses, pinnacles, and spires to give great apparent 
height to a building and to make it a unified vertical mass of great 
beauty. The modern church Spire, together with the long, vertical 
interior columns, similarly affects our present day church edifices. 

This idea of repealing the vertical bounding lines of the primary 
mass by cutting the mass into vertical spaces is also useful in breaking 
up or destroying the monotony of large unbroken surfaces. Pilasters 
may cut the front of a building into interesting spaces; piers may 
break up the regularity of a long fence; legs and panels may, each 

f :ra 1 



Nature 
and Need of 
Vertical 
Space 
Division 



Architectural 

Precedent 

for 

Vertical 

Divisions 



34 




Examples of vertical space divisions 
in class i c wood) • the! divisions 

OF THIS CLASS ARE <oE.riERALLY BASED 
UPON THE STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS' 



0/1 
FIG-E5 ' I 

f^-TWO EQUAL- -. VERTICA L DiViSIQ^I 




A VARIATION OF TWO VERTICAL DIV- 
ISIONS • DOMINANCE OF LEFT SECTION 



THREE VERTICAL 

c-EQuAL.>LDlVlSIOIiS WITH 
.DOMIMAMCE OF 
THE CEIiTEF? SECTION 



EQUAL 




riG-26 



Plate 12 



for the same purpose, cross a cabinet. While some of these may be 
structurally necessary and some not, they are all witnesses to the 
desire to produce beauty in design. As these examples are so 
numerous in the industrial arts, it is well to study in detail their 
proper adaptation to our needs. 

Upon analyzing one vertical space division, it will be found to be a 
primary mass, vertical in character and governed by Rule la. Figure 
2.5. Plate 12, illustrates one vertical division. The foot is an 
appendage to be considered in Chapter V. 

Rule 3a. // the primary mass is divided into two vertical divisions, 
the divisions should be equal in area and similar in form. Exception 
may be made in case of structural requirements. By imagining 
two adjacent doors of equal size, the design effect of two vertical 
divisions may be made clear. Plate 11 illustrates a rectangle (A) 
divided in this manner, preliminary to the development of a prob- 
lem. Figure 27, Plate 12, represents the type of object to which 
the exception to the rule may be applied. In the design of this 
desk, the structure practically prohibits two equal vertical divisions, 
necessitating an unequal division in the section occupied by the 
drawers. 

In Plate 12, Figure 2(>, the designer had his vertical spacings 
dictated by service in the form of two doors. As service demands a 
tall vertical primary mass, it is but natural to design the doors to 
conform with the primary mass. This gives a monotonously long 
space for the glass panels and suggests structural weakness. To 
relieve this the designer applied Rule 2a and crossed the vertical 
panels by horizontal subdivisions, relieving the monotony and still 
retaining the unity of the primary mass. 

In Figure 27 his problem was a variation of that presented in 
Figure 2(5. Structural limitations called for unequal divisions of the 
vertical space arrangement. The left portion of the desk becomes 
dominant as demanded by service. The drawer or brace is necessary 
in this design as it acts as a sort of link, binding the two vertical 
legs together. The omission of the drawer would destroy the unity 
of t he mass. 

As vertical space divisions are principally applicable to rectilinear 
or flat objects and moreover as it is in such forms only that they 



One 
Vertical 
Space 
Division 



Two 
Vertical 
Space 
Divisions 



Two 
Vertical 
Divisions 
in Wood 



36 



bon,*AMTs EcTlcVi _l I 




•NOTE THE. fSEPETlTIOM Of= 
THREE "V- -SPACE. OIVU5IOMS 
IM OIFFEPEMT NATE.RIALS AT 



fl<& -30 



u_ u DOMIIS 

r SECTI- 




EXAMPLES OF VE.eTlCA.L_ SPACE. DIVISIOMS 
IN CLASi &• CLAY APHO CE.ME.MT 



Plate 13 



37 



have structural value, they are not commonly met in cylindrical 
pottery ware. Vertical divisions are, however, occasionally used in 
architectural tiles and other flat wall objects. As three divisions 
are much more commonly used in clay and cement, this material 
will now be left for later consideration in this chapter. 

Vertical spacings in metal are quite similar to space divisions in 
wood. Wrought iron fences are, by reason of structural limitations 
composed of vertical and horizontal lines, varied by the introduction 
of piers and curved members. As they are typical of a certain 
branch of iron construction, two designs of the Anchor Post Iron 
Company have been introduced. Figure 32, Plate 14, represents 
two equal vertical divisions made so because of structural and 
aesthetic demands. The piers in this instance form a part of the 
general design of the entire gate and must be considered accordingly. 

The vertical subdivision in Figure 3 C 2, Plate 14, has been repeated 
or echoed by the long vertical bars, alternating with the shorter ones 
and producing pleasing variety. The horizontal divisions are 
designed according to Rule c 2b. Jn designing the newel lantern in 
Figure 34 the designer was required to form a vertical primary 
mass to conform with the similar mass of the post. This he deter- 
mined to subdivide vertically in practically the same manner as 
the cabinet in Figure 2(>. Threatened with the same monotony he 
met the situation by subdividing the vertical sections into three 
horizontal divisions in accordance with Rule 2h. The structural 
supports, however, rising up in the center of this mass, destroy 
its unity. They would have carried out the lines of the structure 
of the newel post and continued the lines of the lantern better, if 
they had been attached to the corners rather than to the sides of 
the newel post. 

Rule 3b. If the primary mass is divided into three vertical divisions, 
the center division should be the larger, with the remaining divisions 
of equal size. A large building with a wing on either side will give 
an idea of this form of spacing. The size of the main building holds 
the wings to it, thus preserving the unity of the structure, while equal 
divisions on either side give balance. Plate 1 1 (/>) gives an example 
of a rectangle divided in this manner. This three-division motive 
is a very old one. In the middle ages painters and designers used 



Two 
Vertical 
Divisions 
in Clay 



Vertical 
Divisions 
in Metal 



Three 
Vertical 
Space 
Divisions 



\ . Ji< 



,;s 



^Tfj--.- 1 ton 





Hg. • 3£ 



.DClHiriANT 




FIG -33 




FlG, -35 



5T&' I h' f ~^ u f 

SI Si * r ' equal T 



I c=i 



.DOMINAHT 



(LXAMPLE.S or TWO AMD THREE. VERTICAL 
SUBDIVISIONS lh CLA55 3 (ME.TAL) • • • 





Plate 14 



3!) 



three divisions or a triptych, as it is called, in their altar decorations. 
A painting of the Virgin was usually placed in the center division 
with a saint in each of the remaining panels to the right and left. 
Designers and mural decorators have been using the triptych ever 
since that period. 

The desk in Figure 28, Plate 12, is a good example of the three- 
vertical space rule. The drawer in the center forms the mid or 
dominant section and by its greater length holds the two smaller 
sections together. This design is better than Figure 27, which has a 
similar mass. The prominent vertical lines in Figure 27 counteract 
and destroy the effect of the long horizontal dominant lines of the 
table top, whereas in Figure 28, the vertical lines in the center of the 
design are so short that they do not interfere with the horizontal 
lines of the table top. Figure 28 supports the horizontal tendency 
of the primary mass while Figure 27 neutralizes or practically 
destroys its character. 

Figure 30, Plate 13, represents an ovennantle by the Rookwood 
Potteries. It is typical of a class of overman ties which may be devel- 
oped in tiles or in cement, forming an agreeable contrast with the 
brick of a large fireplace. The three divisions or triptych should be 
proportionately related to the opening of the fireplace and to the 
enclosing mass of brick or wood work. We will consider Figure 29 
to show how this may be carried out. 

Figure 29 bears a strong resemblance to Figure 12, Plate 9, and 
is an elaboration of a simple three-division theme of spacing. The 
design seems to be complex until it is analyzed into two rules. The 
primary mass of the entire fireplace motive (including the surround- 
ing panelling) has first been planned with strong and prominent 
horizontal lines. This was then divided vertically (A) to conform 
with Rule 3b, the three-division theme, giving the divisions for the 
bookcases and mantle. The horizontal divisions (/>) were then 
constructed within the remaining space, affecting the distance from 
the picture moulding to the mantle and from the mantle to the floor 
line, in accordance witli Rule 2a. Thai left the space of the width 
of the cement work (C) to be subdivided again by Rule 3b, while the 
to]) of the wainscoting panels re-echoed the previous horizontal 
divisions of Rule 2a. The fireplace opening merely carries out at D 



Three 
Vertical 
Divisions 
in Wood 



Three 
Vertical 
Divisions 
in Clay 
and Cement 



40 



THE EVOLUTION OF A DF_Sl(=>H IMVOLV1HG, THE. USE. OF 
TWO HOPS IT-Ot-iTAl- AHO THREE. VERTICAL *5UE> DlVl^ lOM^. 



THE COMPLETE.^ PROBLE-M 




FIG- A- THE HORIZONTAL AMD -VE.RTICAV_ 
D1V15IONS AR.E B^EO UPOM STRUCTURAL 
REQUIREMEHT2 * 



FiG'B- THE PRir-jARV MA35 WITH TWO 
HORI"ZjOMTAI_ OlVlAIONO • RULE-i' I • Z* 



FI&-0- THE AODITIOM OF THREE 
VERTICAL DIVkMOM5 • RUL.EV3 Hd * 





APPEMOAGE 




















PROPORTION OF 
MA3i APPROKiMATELV 





FIG-O- THE ADDITION OF SU&-DIVI3IOMS 

AriD APPEMDAC--E' RUL^-3' AhD'4- 




L-- 



FIG'E- ADDITION OF DE_T7VII_5> AMD) 

EISR1CHMEMT' 



FOR 3HOP WORKIMfr DRAWine.S:OME-HALF OF FI&E- SHOULD NOW BE EMLAR&EO 
TD A FULL.-5I2.E PENCIL. DRAWING WITH CONSTRUCTION AMD PARTIAL EMO VIEW ADDED- 



Plate 15 



41 



the same proportionate relation that dominates all vertical divisions. 
Rule 3b, while the wainscoting follows the general horizontal divisions 
of Rule 2a. By this method we have variety in spacing and unity 
through repetition of similar proportions. 

The cement bench, Figure 31, has a three-division arrangement 
to break up the monotony of the long rail, and at the same time to 
repeat the characteristics of a horizontal primary mass. 

Figure 33, Plate 14, is a common example of three vertical 
divisions in metal suggested by the needs of service. Figures 3.5 
and 3G are thin metal problems. The familiar pen tray is primarily 
a horizontal mass, so determined by its required service as a pen 
holder. The projecting handles form the outer divisions, and the 
spacing motive, Rule 3b, has been repeated in the raised projection, 
decorating the handles. The book rack in Figure 36 is an example 
of the manner in which a nearly square mass, so designed for struc- 
tural reasons, may, by Rules 3b and 2a, be broken into a fairly 
pleasing arrangement of divisions. 

Rule 3c. In elementary problems, if more than three vertical 
divisions are required, they should be so grouped as to analyze into 
Rules 3a and 3b, or be exactly similar. The eye becomes confused 
by a multitude of vertical divisions and it is much better designing 
to keep them within the number stated in this chapter. There are 
instances, however, when this is impossible. Under such conditions 
the following treatment should be adopted: 

Unless, as stated, a large number of vertical divisions may be 
grouped into two or three vertical divisions it is better to make all 
of the divisions of I he same size. This does not fatigue the eye as 
much as would the introduction of a number of complex spacings. 
This solution enables the amateur designer to deal with complex 
problems with an assurance of securing a degree of unity. 



Three 
Vertical 
Divisions 
in Metal 



More Than 

Three 

Divisions 



INSTRUCTION SIIKKT 

Plate \5 is practically self-explanatory and shows 1 In* order in which the 
various divisions, so far considered, arc to he introduced into tin* design together 
with the grouping of details within those divisions. Figure 1) introduces the 
additional element termed I lie appendage to be considered in Chapter V. 



[42] 

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS 

(a) Construction of the rectangle representing the vertical or horizontal char- 
acter of the primary mass with desirable proportions. Select the most 
prominent surface for this rectangle, preferably the front elevation. 

(6) Subdivide this rectangle into two or three structural sections, horizontal 
and vertical in character. Make two or three trial freehand sketches 
on cross section paper for varied proportions and select the most 
pleasing in accordance with rules. 

(e) Translate the selected sketch into a scale or full size drawing and add 
additional views to complete the requirements of a working drawing. 
Add additional structural elements: legs, rails, etc. 

(d) For shop purposes, enlarge a scale drawing to full size, dimension and 

otherwise prepare it for actual use. See Figure 102a, page G8, for 
character of this change. 

(e) Construct the project. 

SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 

Design a fire screen with two horizontal and three vertical major sub- 
divisions. 

Design a bookcase 4 feet 2 inches high with three horizontal and two vertical 
major subdivisions. 



SUMMARY OF RULES 

Rule 3a. If the primary mass is divided into two vertical divisions, the 
divisions should be equal in area and similar inform. 

Rule 3b. If the primary mass is divided into three vertical divisions, the 
center division should be the larger, with the remaining divisions of equal size. 

Rule 3c. In elementary problems, if more than three vertical divisions are 
required, they should be so grouped as to analyze into Rules 3a and Sb, or be exactly 
similar. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. What is the nature and need of vertical space divisions? 

2. State the rule governing the use of two vertical space divisions and give 

illustrations in wood, clay, and metal. 

3. Give the rule relating to the use of three vertical space divisions and furnish 

illustrations in wood, clay, and metal. 

4. What is the treatment of more than three vertical divisions? Why? 



Chapter V 



APPENDAGES AND RULES GOVERNING THEM 



An appendage is a member added to the primary mass for utili- 
tarian purposes. In the industrial arts, when an appendage is added 
merely for the purpose of decoration, it is as useless and functionless 
as the human appendix and, as a source of discord, should be removed. 

An appendage in industrial arts may be, among other things, 
a plate rail, bracket, spout, cover, or handle, all of which are capable 
of service either for or with the primary mass. In architecture it 
may be a wing or ell added to the mass of the building. Simple as 
its design may seem, it is often so placed in relation to the main or 
primary mass that it does not seem to "fit" or to be in unity with 
that mass. 

Rule 4a. The appendage should be designed in unity with, and 
proportionately related to, the vertical or horizontal character of the 
primary mass, bid subordinated to it. 

Rule 4b. The appendage should have the appearance of flowing 
smoothly and, if possible, tangcntially from the primary mass. 

Rule 4c. The appendage should, if possible, echo or repeat some 
lines similar in character and direction to those of the primary mass. 

All of the foregoing rules are intended to promote the sense of 
unity between the primary mass and its appendages. If a mirror 
on a dresser looks top-heavy it is generally due to the fact that it has 
not been subordinated in size to the primary mass. Rule 4a. If the 
handle projects from the primary mass of an object similar to the 
handle on a pump, it has not been designed in accordance with 
Rules 4b and 4c. Again, if the appendage projects from a primary 
mass like a tall chimney from a long flat building, it has violated 
Rule 4a and has not been proportionately related to the character 
of the vertical or horizontal proportions of the primary mass. 

It should be readily seen that if the primary mass has one domi- 
nant proportion while the appendage has another, there will be a 

[43 1 



Use of the 
Appendage 



Designing 

an 

Appendage 



Violations of 

Appendage 

Design 



44 



.J.CK>™NA.MT|_ 



/VPPEMOAGE. 




APPEMOA&E 



FIG -37 • 

MOTE. THE RE.I_ATlOr4 OF THE 
■\/- MASS OFTHE.APPEMDASE 
TO THE VERTICAL. LIME.S OF 
THE PRIMARVHASS -FlGS-37-36 



APPET10A6E 

*omiOMTAl. MOTIVE 




APPt«f> A <3 e - 




PfcE.FEKAB.LE 
CHAM6E FKOtl I 
CATALOG DE~ I 

.lL*>ien • • 'A" 

DROPPED TO 

FIG -39 • "B"l 

THREE VERTICAL DN151CMS 
OF THE APPENDAGE REPEAT 
THE L-OriG VERTICAL. LINES 
OF THE TABLE- •• 




FM&-40 



EXAMPLES OF APPEMDA6ES) IIH CLA5S | (WOOD) 
ADDEIO TO THE. PCiriARV MLASS FOR UTlLtTARl AM 
PURPOSES • THLY SHOULD ALWAYS ©EL RELATED TO 
ThE. PRIMARY MASS BY TANGEttTS " PARALL.ELO- OR ?>OTH ♦ 



Plate 10 



45 



serious clash and the final result will be the neutralization of both 
motives, resulting in either an insipid and characterless design or a 
downright lack of unity. 

The design of the small dressing table, Figure 37, Plate 1G, with 
the mirror classing as an appendage, is an excellent illustration of 
Rule 4a. The main mass of the table is vertical in character and the 
mirror carries out or repents the character of the primary mass by 
having a similar but subordinate vertical mass. In this instance it is 
so large that it has nearly the effect of a second primary mass. 

As tangential junctions arc difficult to arrange in wood construc- 
tion and particularly in furniture, the break between the table top 
and the mirror has been softened by the introduction of a bracket 
or connecting link. The curves of the link cause the eye to move 
freely from the primary mass to the appendage and thus there is a 
sense of oneness or unity between the two masses. 

The lantern in Figure 38 becomes an appendage and is subordi- 
nated to the large pedestal or support. The tangential junction 
has in this case been fully possible and the eye moves freely from the 
vertical lines of the base to the similar vertical mass of I he lantern 
without noticeable break. 

The service of the dressing table, Figure 30, with its three- 
division mirror makes Ihe problem of adaptation of the appendage 
to the mass of the table, in accordance with the rules, much more 
difficult, ruder the circumstances, about the best that can be done, 
at the same time keeping within the limitations of desired service, is 
to plan the mirrors in accordance with Rule 3b, with the dominant 
section in the center. To secure an approach to unity, each section 
of the mirror should echo the vertical proportion of the primary 
mass of the table. 

The top of the writing stand, in Figure 40, is an example of a 
horizontal appendage which repeats the horizontal character of the 
front or typical face of the primary mass of the table. The small 
drawers and divisions again lake up and repeat the horizontal 
motive of the table, while the entire appendage 1 may be subdivided 
under Rule 3b, giving the dominance to the center portion. The 
short curves in the appendage all lend to lead the eye in a satisfactory 
and smooth transition from one mass to the other or from the table 



Appendages 
in Wood 



Unifying 
Appendage 
and Primary 
Mass 



46 




Figure -11a 



Courtesy of Berkey and Gay 



[47] 



top to the appendage. The proportions of the small drawers are 
similar to the proportions of the table drawers. Rule 4c. All of 
these points of similarity bring the masses into close unity or oneness 
of appearance. 

The table legs, in Figure 41, are more difficult to adjust satis- 
factorily. The idea of the designer is, however, apparent. The 
legs leave the column of the table with a tangential curve and, 
sweeping out with a strong curve, repeat the horizontal line of the 
table top in the horizontal lines of their bottom surfaces. 

Figure 41a, a modification of Figure 39, shows close unity between industrial 
the three divisions of the mirror due to the pleasing curve of the center Applications 
section with its tendency to bind the other sections to it. Again, 
the echoing of the spacings of the three drawers in the similar spac- 
ings of the three mirrors, makes the bond of unity still closer to the 
ideal arrangement. Rule 4e. 

Figures 41b and 41c are, in a way, parallel to Figure 41. The 
eye moves freely from the feet (appendages) along the smooth and 
graceful curves to the tall shaft or column of the primary mass. The 
turned fillets, introduced at the junction of the appendage and the 
primary mass, in Figure 41c, have a tendency to check this smooth 
passage making the arrangement in Figure 41b preferable. The 
hardware for the costumers is well chosen and in sympathy with the 
vertical proportions of the design. 

With the word "clay"' all difficulties in the treatment of append- 
ages vanish. It is by far the easiest medium for the adaptation of Appendages 
the appendage to the primary mass. Covers, handles, and spouts in Clay 
are a few of the more prominent parts falling under this classification. 

The process of the designer is to create the primary rectangle, 
subdivide it into two horizontal subdivisions in accordance with 
Rule 2a, and proceed to add the desired number of appendages. 
The result may be suggested by the following illustrations. In 
Figure 43, Plate 17, the cover is a continuation of the curve of the 
toj) of the bowl, Rule 4a; the tops of the handles are continuations 
of the horizontal line in the top contour of the bowl, while the lower 
portions of the handles seem to spring or grow from the lower part 
of the bowl with a tangential curve. 



48 




Figure 41b 



Courtesy of llerlcey and Gay 



Figure 41c 



49 



Figure 44 is a horizontal primary mass with the horizontal 
subdivision in the upper section of that mass. The spout and 
handle spring naturally from the body and balance each other in 
proportion, while the cover handle rises smoothly from the primary 
mass. The horizontal character of the primary mass is consistently 
carried out in the appendages. 

The handle, in Figure 4.5, leaving the body at a tangent, rises 
with a long straight curve to turn suddenly and join the pitcher in 
harmony with its top. The apparent abruptness of the junction is 
softened by the rounded corners typical of clay construction. 

The Hookwood set, Figure 4 t 2, represents three similar primary 
masses. The proportionate ratios and the horizontal subdivisions 
are the same throughout. The handle for the teapot has been curved 
in the center to give variety to the handle. This variation is a 
difficult thing to manage without consequent loss of unity as by this 
variation Rule 4a is violated. One thing may be said in its favor. 
It brings the hand closer to the spout and thus supports the pouring 
weight. But the unusual in design is to be discouraged until sufficient 
skill in simple designing has been acquired. 

In designing handle appendages for clay, they should be so placed 
that they readily control the weight of the material in the container 
and afford room for the fingers. Thus, it is better to have the larger 
portion of the handle opening at the top of the primary mass. The 
spout in all instances should continue sufficiently high to allow the 
container to be filled to its full capacity without danger of the contents 
running out of the spout. The glaze runs into rounded corners 
much more freely than into square ones, hence it is preferable to use 
rounded corners wherever possible. 

It is the unexpected curve that is welcome in all designing, 
provided it supports the structure and conforms to established rules. 
After completing a design involving appendages it should be checked 
from three points of view; (1) service, ( L 2) unity between the primary 
mass and the appendages, and (3) variety of curvature. On this last 
point it is needless to say that compass curves are not desirable 
except in rounding small corners or in using fillets. It is well known 
that compass curves are difficult to assimilate into pleasing tangential 
effects. They are inclined to be monotonous and regular with a 



Covers, 
Spouts, and 
Handles 



Requirements 
for 

Appendage 
Design 



50 



APPENDAGES inOICATEO 
BY • A* INCLUDE UDS • 
SPOUTS AMD HAMDLE5 



A VARIATION OF THE 
SYMMETRICAL. HAMDLE-- 

3EE. TEXT- 




COMTIMUITY OF 
CURVATURE 




FIG -4-3 



FlG.4-2 • IMCLUDE5 THREE- PIECES 
MOTE THE SIMILARITY OF THE 
PRIMARY MA55E5 * 



MOTE THE R EL ATI OM 
BETWEEN THE STRAI- 
GHT. LIME OF THE. HAN- 
DLE TOP AHD THE TOP 
OF=THE. BOWL' MOTE. 
THE. TANGENTIAL. UNION 
OF THE LOWER END OF 
HM1DLE AND BOWL- 

FIG-4-5- 




EXAMPLES OF APPENDAGES in CI_A£>5 2 

(POTTERY^ ADDED TO THE PRIMARY MA55 FOR 

UTILITARIAN PURPOSES- THE. PLASTICITY OF 

CLAY ALLOWS A PERFECT TANGENT I Al_ UNION WITH. THE BODY 



Plate 17 



H] 



Appendages 
in Metal 



"made by the thousand" appearance to them. One should trust Freehand 
to freehand sweeps, drawn freely with a full arm movement when Curves 
possible. All curves should spring naturally from the primary 
mass. Blackboard drawing is excellent practice for the muscles 
used in this type of designing. In a short time it will be found 
possible to produce the useful long, rather flat curve with its sudden 
turn (the curve of force) that will make the compass curve tame 
and commonplace by comparison. 

Figures 55, 56, and 57, Plate 18, show the close bond between 
the appearance of the appendage in clay, and the one in metal. 
While it is technically more difficult to adapt metal to the rules 
governing appendages than is the case with clay, the final results are, 
in most instances, equally pleasing to the eye. 

In most of the figures showing examples in metal, the appendages 
have to be secured to the primary mass by screws, rivets, or solder, 
whereas in clay they may be moulded into the primary mass. This 
tends to secure a more unified appearance; but in metal, the junc- 
tion of the handle and the primary mass is often made a decorative 
feature of the design and gives added interest and variety to the 
project. 

The simple primary mass. Figure 58, has a horizontal space 
division in the lower portion of the mass. This point of variation of 
the contour has been used in the primary masses in Figures 55, 56, 
and 57, also as the starting point of that dominant appendage, the 
handle. Springing tangentially from the body, it rises in a straight 
line of extreme value in service, then with a slight turn it parallels 
and joins the top of the bowl, thus fulfilling the design fund ions of 
an appendage from both points of service and beauty. The spout 
and lid, Figure 55, may be likewise analyzed. 

The points of tangency, in Figure 54, become a decorative feature 
of the design. The handles in the parts of the fire set. Figures 48 Tangential 
and 49, offer different problems. It is difficult to analyze the latter Junctions 
figures to determine the appendages as they are in such thorough 
unity with the handles and are practically subdivisions of the 
primary mass. But referring to the rule slating the fact that the 
appendages are subordinated to and attached to the primary mass, 
it may justly be slated thai the shovel portion of I he design may 



Fig -46 





FI&-47 ' 



THE. APPEMDAGE. 
MAY SERVE A5 A 
UMK-COMNECTIhGTWO 
PRIMARY MASSES' 





Ex.AMPLE.5 OF APPEN- 
DAGES IN CLA53 3' 

METAL" •• 5EL *A" 

MOTE THE TANGENTIAL 
RELATIOH BETWEEN 
THE APPEMDAGE AMD 
PRIMARY MA55 AT-T" 




TiG -48 



FlG-49 




FlG'5£ 



FIG-53 



Figures 55 to 5s rep- fig-56- fig-57 

RE5ENT A PRHAJSY 
MIAA5 REPEATED TO 
FORM A SET*— THE 
VARIATIONS OF THE 
PRIMARY MAS5 HAVE 

I- been Followed by 

SIMILAR VARIATIOH5 IN 
THE APPENDAGE.' 



K=^ 



FIG '58 



Plate 18 



53 



legitimately be classed as an appendage. This will explain the need 
of a curve at the junction points and the feature of the decorative 
twists in Figure 49. Both designs may be analyzed into three hori- 
zontal divisions. 

The andirons, Figures 50 to 53, illustrate interesting transitions 
in wrought iron from the primary mass to the appendage. The Andiron 
vertical shaft of wrought iron has been treated as a primary mass Design 
while the feet may be classed as appendages. In Figure 50 we have 
an example of a frankly square junction point. Figure 51 discloses 
a weld with rounded corners, forming a more pleasing junction than 
does the abrupt angle of Figure 50. This conforms to Rule 4b. 
The appendage legs echo or repeat the vertical lines of the primary 
mass and there is consequently a sense of unity between them. 

In Figure 52 the appendage foot is curved, and the primary 
mass has a similar curve on the top of the vertical column to apply 
Rule 4c to repeat the curve. The small links at A" indicate an attempt 
to make the junction point more pleasing to the eye, but the link 
is too large to accomplish the desired result successfully. In Figure 
5.3 the links have been materially reduced in size and in the amount 
of curvature. In this example the eye goes unhampered from 
appendage to primary or back again, without perceptible interrup- 
tion and the unitv of the mass, seriouslv threatened in Figure 52, 
is restored in Figure 53. 

In Figure 40 there is an example of a link becoming large enough 
to be classed as an appendage connecting two primary masses, e.g., 
the lantern and the wall. Under these conditions, one end of the 
appendage harmonizes with the lantern and the other end with the 
wall. Figure 47 shows a cast brass candlestick which is an excellent 
example, from the Studio, of tangential junction. 

Clay may readily stand as the most adaptable material for 
appendages, with metal ranking second, and wood third. The grain influence of 
of wood seems to interfere with the tangential junction of the append- Tools and 
age and primary mass. Appendages of wood are, however, quite Materials 
necessary at times. Their use is merely a matter of lessening the 
contrast of conflicting lines in an addition of this nature. 

The band and bracket saws are required in many instances to 
construct the connecting link between opposing masses of wood. 



54 



• Applied amd Constructive. Design * 
Principle. a-- relation of primary mass to appehdage5 
problem : application to cla55e15 z amd 3 - 

XXrcccco: 

CLASS 2,- 3 




AN APPENDAGE. IS A SUBORDINATE- 
MASS ADDED TO THE. PRIMARY MASS 
FOR UTILITARIAN PURPOSES" IT^HOULD 
HARMONIZE WITH THE PRIMARY MASS 
IN OUTLINE. AND PROPORTION AMD 
IF POSSIBLE. , SPRING TAHGE.NTIALLY 
FROM IT» — 





DRAW THREE. DESIOiMS ILLUSTRATING 
PRINCIPLE 4-. 



Plate 19 



Hand building or casting is the means used to construct the append- Influence of 
ages in plastic materials. Appendages in cement are seen in the Tools and 
uprights for cement seats and are generally translated into the Materials 
primary mass by means of mouldings or curves. (Continued) 

Forging or thin and raised metal construction affords many 
examples of the adaptability of material in constructing appendages. 
Rivets form decorative features at the junction points and should 
be placed with great care and relation to the decoration and the point 
of tangeney. 

INSTRUCTION SHEET FOR CLASS PRESENTATION 

The typical views to be used in classroom work, with the ordinary range 
of problems, arc shown on Plate 1!). These typical views should be supple- 
mented by dimensions, cross sections, and other views whenever necessary. 
Wood construction has been omitted from this sheet, but its development in 
design is quite similar to the steps indicated in the summary. 

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS 

(a) Draw the primary rectangle. 

(6) Subdivide the rectangle into two or three horizontal and, if necessary, 
vertical divisions. 

(c) Estimate the dimensions of the appendage necessary to perform the desired 

service in the best manner. 

(d) If the appendage is a handle, place it in such a position that it not only 

appears to but actually does support the weight of the primary mass. 

(e) Complete the contour curves of the primary mass based upon the horizontal 

division which acts as a unit of measurement or a turning point. 
(/) Join the appendages to the primary mass by means of tangential curves. 
(g) Establish unity between the primary mass and the appendages by applying 

Rules 4a, 4b, and Ic. 
(/;) Dimension and otherwise prepare the drawing for shop use. Sec Plate "Hi. 

SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 

Design a sugar bowl, cream pitcher, and teapot. Consider them as differ- 
ent members of one set. 

Design a sideboard 3 feet '3 inches high with plate rack, the design to contain 
two vertical and two horizontal divisions exclusive of the appendage. 

SUMMARY OF RULES 

Rule 4a. The appendage xhonld be designed in unit)/ with, and proportionately 
related to, the vertical or horizontal character of the primary tna.t.i, hut subordinated 
to it. 



.}() 



Rule 4b. The appendage should have the appearance of flowing smoothly 
and, if possible, tangentially from the primary mass. 

Rule 4c. The appendage should, if possible, echo or repeat some lines similar in 
character and direction to those of the primary mass. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. State the nature and use of the appendage. 

2. What is the relation of the size of the appendage to the size of the 

primary mass? 

3. How should the appendage be attaehed to the primary mass? 

4. How does Rule 4c help to secure unity between the appendage and the 

primary mass? 

5. Are compass curves permissible in appendage design? 

6. State influence of tools and materials upon appendage design. 



Chapter VI 

ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOURS OR OUTLINES 
OF DESIGNS IN WOOD 

With this chapter we introduce contour enrichment, the second 
major division of industrial arts design. 

A critic of furniture designed by the average manual arts student 
has stated frankly that while it might have been honestly constructed 7\r ee( j an H 
it was, in the first place, too heavy for a woman to move about the Value of 
house and, in the second place, it represented a decidedly uneco- Enrichment 
nomical use of that valuable material, wood. That there is a basis in 
fact for this statement cannot be denied. Is it true, then, that 
furniture must of necessity be clumsy and heavy when it is sufficiently 
simplified in constructive processes for school work? We may say 
emphatically, "No!" 

One may correct the proportions of an object and reduce the size 
of the materials in it to a minimum but still fail to secure the desirable 
elements of lightness and interest. The object may still look heavy 
and remain a box-like structure void of the grace synonymous with 
the best in design. It is, however, possible to correct the clumsy 
and heavy appearances by imparting to the design elements of grace 
and lightness. Two methods may be used, singly or together: 
(1) Enrichment of the Functional Outlines or Contours; ( L 2) Surface 
Enrichment sometimes called Space Filling. These may be roughly 
classified respectively as three and two dimension enrichment. 

The first, or outline enrichment, concerns itself with t he st ruetural 
lines. As all designing processes should start with the structure. Contour 
it will be our policy to do so. The present chapter will deal only Enrichment 
with enrichment of outlines of wood projects. 

Rule 5a. Outline euriclnnrnt should be subordinated to and support 
the structure. 

Rule .5b. Outline enrichment should add (/race, lit/htness, and 
variety to the design. 



58 



COMM0M E.RKOR.S lft CONTOUR ENRICHMENT 
• STM^lP 150XES • 






c 



v_ 




FIG- 62- 
COMPASS CURVES 



FlG-5"9- FIG-60- FIG-6I- 

MOMOTOHOU5 CURVE.5 AHO FAULTS" H ■ DIVISIONS 

• ROSETTES- 



FIG * 63 - 
LACKOF CONTINUITY AND UNITY 



JTL 




FIG- 65- 
MONOTOHCU5 CURVES 



I 



FIG- 67- 

VIOLATES 

"5ERVICE.ETC- 




c 



¥^ 



C 




=5 



£ 



u 

, FIG-S4-- .. 
ORNAMENT 
COMPASS COR- 
VES WITH NO 
GROUPING 



THE APPENDAGE 
FAILS TO &E CONVINC- 
INGLY ATTACHED TO 
THE PRIMARY MASS' 




FIG • 66 • 
LACK OF SIMPLICITY 




CURVES OF 
EXTRAVAGANCE 
LAOCOF 
CONTINUITY 



FIG -69 - 
MONOTONY 



FIG- 66- 



Flate 19a 



59 



It is the purpose of enrichment to add to the problem (1) grace; 
(2) lightness; (3) variety; (4) unity. If it is applied in a proper 
manner it should likewise add to the apparent structural strength. 
We should carefully guard the design, therefore, against (1) enrich- 
ment that has a tendency to obscure or destroy the structural lines; 
in other words, enrichment that is not subordinated to the structure, 
and (2) enrichment that adds nothing to the structure by its appli- 
cation; that is, one which does not increase either the apparent 
strength or the beauty of the object. 

As an example of this first point, the turned candlestick with the 
candle supported by a stack of turned balls alternating with tauri 
or thin discs tends to obscure completely the sense of support. Again, 
the landscape gardener feels that he is violating a fundamental 
principle in design if by planting vines to grow around a building, 
he obscures the foundation, and the roof appears, consequently, to 
rest on and be supported by the stems and leaves of the vines. Thus 
it is seen that the eye registers a sense of structural weakness when 
the main supports of an object disappear and are no longer to be 
traced under the enrichment. 

Under the second point falls the indiscriminate placing of 
unrelated objects in the contour enrichment. Naturalistic objects 
similar to the claw foot and the human head, for example, should give 
way to natural curves that add to the appearance of total strength. 
Where are we to find these curves suited to our purpose? 

Up to this point emphasis has been placed upon straight and 
curved lines immediately connected with pure service. For grace 
and lightness it is necessary to depart a I times from the rigidity 
of straight lines. To understand the character of this departure 
let us consider a simple bracket as a support for a shelf. 

This bracket acts as a link, connecting a vertical wall or leg witli 
a horizontal member or shelf. A bracket shaped like a 4. , > -degree 
triangle, Figure 10, page 24, gives one the sense of clumsiness. If the 
feeling of grace is to be imparted the eye must move smoothly 
along the outline of the bracket, giving one a sensation of aesthetic 
pleasure. A curved line will produce this effect more completely 
than will a straight line. One must likewise get the feeling that 
the curve of the bracket is designed to support the shelf. 



Purpose of 

Contour 

Enrichment 



Requirements 
of Contour 
Enrichment 



Valuable 
Curves for 
Outline 
Enrichment 



00 



MATURAL AMD GEOMETRIC CURVED WITH THEIR USE IM FUttCTlOMAU 
CUTLltlL EMFCtc.Hr-iE.riT • 



CURVE OF 
FORCE. AS 
NATURES 
5UPPORTING 
CURVE 




FIG- "76 ILLU5- 
TRATIMG ECHO 
OF SIMILAR CURVED I 
AT "E* 



Plate 50 



[01] 

The Curve of Force 

Turning to Figure 70, Plate L 20, we find that whenever nature Valuable 
desires to support a weight she is inclined to use a peculiar curve seen Curves 
at F. Possibly through continued observation the eye has asso- 
ciated this curve with strength or supporting power. Figure 71 
has detailed this curve. It is found to consist of a long, rather flat 
portion with a quick and sudden turn at its end. The curve is 
known to designers as the Curve of Force and is most valuable in 
all forms of enrichment. Designers even in early ages used it in 
some form as will be noted from the fragment of Greek sculpture 
in Figure 7 L 2. Its beauty rests in its variety. A circle has little 
interest due to its rather monotonous curvature. The eye desires 
variety and the curve of force administers to this need and gives a 
sense of satisfaction. As designers on wood, how are we to utilize 
this curve for purposes of outline enrichment? 

For approximate similarity of curvature an ellipse constructed 
as shown in Figure 73 will be found convenient. By drawing several ^.n Approxi- 
ellipses of varying sizes upon sheets of tin or zinc, a series of templates mate Curve 
of utmost practical value may be formed and used as was done in of Force 
securing the curves of force in Figures 74 and 75. If the rail or shelf 
is longer than the post, measured downward from the rail to the floor 
or to the next shelf, the ellipse should be used with its major axis 
placed in a horizontal position. Figure 7o. If, on the contrary, the 
post is longer than the shelf the ellipse should have its major axis 
in a vertical position, Figure 74. Figures 7(5 and 77 show other 
instances of the use of the approximate curve of force. Many 
similar practical applications will occur to the designer. 

We have classed the bracket as a link connecting a vertical and 
horizontal structure. Mouldings may likewise be considered ;is Mouldings 
links connecting similar horizontal or vertical surfaces by bands of 
graded forms. Inasmuch as they effect tin 4 outline 4 they are consid- 
ered in this chapter. As the mouldings are to assist the eye to make 1 
the jump from one surface to another by easy steps, the position 
from which the mouldings are to be seen determines to some extent 
their design. 

Figure 78 shows the relation of the spectator to three types of 
mouldings at .1, />, and V. The top or crown (A) is to be seen from 



EMR.ICHME.riT OF THE- COMTOUR. OR OOTLirAE &V MOOLDIHG.S APPLIED 
TO WOOD-" TYPE-S 0^ MOULDING. ••• WOOD TuRHIMG PRO&LEMS • 




FIG- 83 REPEE5EI1T5 A. CORKECTLf DESIGNED 
CANDLESTICK WITH OUTLINE ENRICHMENTS DROOPED 
IN ACCORDANCE WITH KULE5 2. A AMD &•• FI&UEE S4- 
15 ATYPICAL FAULTY DESIGN VIOLATING. PROPORTIONATE. 
GROUPING AMO CONTINUITY WITH LACK OF CONTRAST- 



FIG- CONTRASTED 
82. • Curves • 



Plate 21 



63 



below. On a large project the angle of the mouldings with the body 
of the object should be approximately 45 degrees. The intermediate 
moulding (B) is lighter than the crown and forms a transitional 
link that may be seen from either above or below. The lower or base 
moulding (0) is the widest member of the group as demanded by 
our sense of stability. It is seen from above. Both for sanitary and 
structural reasons it projects but slightly from the base. With this 
grouping in mind it is needless to say that a faulty moulding is one, 
some portion of which, hidden by intervening moulding, cannot be 
seen by the spectator. 

Architectural design and history have formulated a series of 
curves, geometric in character, that are regarded as standards in the 
Industrial Arts. Some of the more prominent curves with their 
constructions are shown in Figure 79. The horizontal divisions are 
analyzed in accordance with Rules 2a and 2b. It is noticed that the 
Scotia possesses a curve having the shape of the curve of force, while 
the two Cymas are saved from monotonous division by means of 
their reversed curves, illustrating the contrast of direction. The 
curves of Figure 80 are excellent lines for freehand practice in design- 
ing mouldings and will develop the principle of continuity of curvature 
or the smooth transition of one curve into the next. 

To keep this continuity from the monotony of a Marcel Wave 
it is customary to break continuous curves by a fillet such as a straight 
line as shown at D, Figures 81, 82, and 83. When the desired outside 
diameter has been reached, contrast of direction is necessary and 
pleasing as a return. Figure 82. A glance at the curves so far 
considered will quickly determine whether they are fitted for the 
crown, intermediate or base mouldings. A curve should join a 
straight line with either a tangential or right angle junction, which 
makes for positiveness in contour expression. 

Application of these curve's to outline enrichment for wood 
turning projects is to be governed by a strict adherence to Rules 2a 
or 2b, otherwise confusion and lack of unity will result. Figure 83 
shows a major grouping under Rule 2b with the subdivisions and 
minor curves arranged under Rules 2a and 2b. Figure 84 shows 
a disregard for rules and the result is an undesirable monotony of 
contour. If smooth and even eontinuitv of curvature is oiven 



Mouldings 

(Continued) 



Continuitj' 

and 

Contrast 



Grouping 

of 

Curves 



04 






Figure 85. — Modern Candlesticks 




Figure 86. — Modern Book Trough 



Courtesy of Berkey and Gay 



considerable thought, together with that for systematic grouping 
and variety, a pleasing result from wood turning (a much abused 
but pleasing form of outline enrichment) may be secured. Figures 
85 and 86' are illustrations from the industrial field with moulding 
curves grouped, following and supporting the structural lines of the 
object. The columns in Figure 8(5 might, however, be advanta- 
geously reversed. 

Large objects designed to be seen from a distance require larger Materials 
space divisions for their mouldings than do small objects seen from 
a nearer point. Material affects the curve somewhat. Smaller 
mouldings are more suited to the expensive woods like mahogany 
while larger curves may be used in pine or oak. 

We now have at our command a number of interesting and 

serviceable curves suited to the material. Plate '2'2 is a sheet of Evolution of 

applications. Figures 87 to 94 deal with the book-rack end and in Enriched 

this, as in the initial chapter, architecture is referred to as the source ^ . 

c • i • i i Ti i • -ii Design 

tor many laws ot industrial design. It has seemed wise to illustrate 

some of these important parallels as follows: 

We will assume the type of joint construction of the book-rack end 
as settled and the question of enrichment to be under consideration. 

Figure 87 is a simple primary mass without enrichment. It is 
comparable to the plain box-like structure with monotonous outline 
and without interest. The eye follows the outline in the direction 
of the arrows, pausing at the square corners, which interrupt a free 
movement by a harsh right angle. The base (an appendage) repeats 
in each instance the lines of the primary mass. 

Figure 88. Round corners, by freeing the design from the right 
angles, accelerate the eye movement and give a sense of added 
interest and grace to the contour. 

Figure 89. The cornice of a building suggests a similar arrange- 
ment which may be added to the primary mass. It adds the element 
of contrast of direction and variety of widths. 

Figure 90. The main primary mass of a building with two 
equal appendages will suggest the enrichment of the outline 4 in sym- 
pathy with three vertical divisions. Rule 3b. Hue rounded corners Variations 
again assist the eye to travel freely around the contours, thus giving 
a sense of unitv to the (Mil ire form. 



GO 



ENRICHMENT OF THE 



FUNCTIONAL. OUTLINES OR. COMTOUR«5 
A>PF>l_IED TO WOOD • 



AS> 



•THE EVOLUTION OF OUTUHL E.HKICHMENT OF - /N BOOK. RACK 
END WITH CROSS REFER.EJHCE5 TO PARALLELS IN ARCHITECTURE.* 



FIG • 67- 



FIG-86 




FF F p P ff 
EP p f f 1 EF 



VARIATION OF 
FIG- £>7 • INTRO- 
DUCING THE— 

KOUMDED 
COR NEKS 



FIG.- 91 



n 





TMW 



FIG • 92- 



A SLIGHT TAPERING 
OF THE PRIMARY MASS 
TENDS, TO VAKS' THE 
WIDTH AHD CAUSE THE 
EXE TO HOVE IN AN 
UPWARD DIRECTION' 



FIG- ©3 




Fl <S> • 94- 

MOTE THE FACT THAT 
5IHPLE AMD SIMILAR 
9 CURVES AMD STKAl- 
2 C-.HT LINES ARE 
t USED IN ENRICH- 
< MENT- 



FIGURES9I TO 94- PLACE EMPHASIS UPON THE TOP OR CROWNING LINES 
FOCUSING AT POINT" DC'--- THE. OUTLINES ARE STRONGLY DYNAMIC * 



F OOT 5 TOOL VARI ATIONS AND DETAILS WITH OUTLINE ENRICHMENT IMPARTING 



G 



FIG -95- 



PIG- 96- 



Q 



1 fll... ,l\ 


\ 1 


; J 


=» 


L \i 



GRACE AHO UGHT A " 
NESS TO THE DESIGN 



U 



FlG-97- 



FIG SB- 




VARIATIONS OF 
TOP AMD 
BOTTOM 

RAVL5 • THE LOWEf? 
DE51SM IS STRUC- 
TURALLY WEAKEttED 
AT"2" 51 EHKICH- 
MENT • 



FIG -99 



•VARIATIOHS 
OFA SQUARE 

L.C<~\- 




FlG)CX"> 



Plate 22 



67 





RG-lOa EXTRAVAGANT 
CURVE5* D15^EGARDIMG 
ECONOMY OF MATEKI/M-" 
IT 15 CLUMSY AND LACK- 
ING! DIVISIONAL HOKr 
:. l*OMTALGROUPWe»C2) 

FIGMOI R.EPK.ESENT3 CONFUSED OUTLINE ENRICH- 
MENT- THE CURVES A\?E Url^LATED TO AMD DESTROY 
THE STeUGTUKAL LINES"" USELESS ^U^FAcE. OK- 
NAME NT TEND5 TQ ACCENTUATE. "THE. OTHERWISE. 
FAULT VLTf ENRICHED QOTLtNE.- • • 

Figures 101 and 102 



Figure 91. The pediment of a Greek temple with the interest 
centered sit the to]) of the pediment (x) causes a similar concentration 
of interest in the hook-rack end. The slight inclination of the sides 
supplies variety of widths. The architect considers an object witli 
the interest centered in this manner in the upper portion, as possessing 
more individuality than a motive with purely horizontal lines 
across the lop boundary. 



?OLL>. \ c -) ^ZiitthL 




Figure 102a 



6<) 




Fh;i.']{K 108. — A Modern Telephone Stand and Slool 



I'tiurhsy of lhrl.cn and tiay 



70 




Courtesy of Berk ey and Gay 

Figure 104. — Modern Chair 

Figure 9 L 2. In this figure the curved inclination facilitates the 
upward movement of the eye, at the same time supplying variety 
of width. 

Figure 93. The addition of an appendage to the outline of the 
Greek temple suggests a slight drop or variation in the top edge of 
the book-rack end which gives increased interest and grace through 
variety. 

Figure 94. Contrast of direction is supplied in this suggestion 
but it is questionable whether we are adding much to the interest 
bv the corner. 



71] 




Figure 10.7.— A Modern Serving Table 



Coiirle.ii/ of Berkey and f!ni/ 



Figures 9,> lo 98 are variations of one llienie, the foot stool, and 
Figure 99 adds suggestive designs for rails. J) in Figure 99 shows 
the enrichment line cut to a depth which threatens the structural 
value of the rail. This is corrected in Figure 1 ().'>. Figure 100 is an 
application of the curve of force to a chair leg B, with other possi- 



[72] 




Figure 10.5a 



73 




Figure 100. — Sheraton Table 



Courtesy of Bcrkcy and Gay 



bilities at A and C. Numerous applications of the varied curves 
under consideration are found throughout this sheet. 

Before closing with enriched outlines it is well to consider 
flagrant violations of this enrichment now on (he market. Figure 
101 shows a typical example of complete lack of unity and simplicity. 
It is a type of design often associated with cheaply constructed furn- 
iture. It is an ornate parody on outline enrichment. The curves 
of extravagance are well shown in Figure l() c 2 where large bulbous 
curves with no systematic grouping combine disastrous waste of 
material with lack of grace or lightness. It is excellent practice 
to redesign such examples as those shown in Figures 101 and 10 L 2 
with special reference to Rule 5c. 

Rule oc. Outline enrichment, by its similarity, should give a sense 
of oneness or unity to the design, binding divergent members together. 



74 




[75] 

Illustrations 103 to 10G are typical forms of present day outline 
enrichment. Limitations of space will not permit reference to the use 
of Period furniture. Sheraton and Ilepplewhite designs are most 
adaptable for school uses as may be seen by comparing the Sheraton 
desk (Figure 10G) with the foot stool in Figure 9G. 



INSTRUCTION SHEET 

Figure 83 and Plates 22 and 23 are indicative of what might he obtained 
from a class. The problem represented on Plate 23 is advantageously colored 
with the intended stain and with a small section of side wall and trim visible. 
See Chapter 10, Figures 458 to 403. Figure 102a shows the method of enlarging 
a design into a full size working drawing for shop purposes. 



SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS 

(a) Draw the primary rectangle. 

(6) Subdivide the rectangle into vertical and horizontal divisions. 

(c) Determine parts to be treated by contour enrichment. 

(d) Determine method suited to the project: wood turning, moulding, etc. 

(e) Group the wood turning curves under a definite system included under 

Rules 2a and 2b. Group the mouldings under crown, intermediate, and 
base classifications. Add this enrichment to the primary mass or make 
other simple variations that will not destroy the unity of the project. 
(/) Dimension and otherwise prepare the drawing for shop use. 
(g) Construct the project. 

Xotc. — If the designer is not properly equipped to prepare his own mould- 
ings, he should consult moulding catalogs or the stock of some local lumber 
company. 



ADDITIONAL SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 

Design a wood pedestal with the curves grouped into three horizontal 
divisions. 

Design a hall table 2 feet 10 inches high and add simple contour enrichment, 



SUMMARY OF Rl'LKS 

Rule 5a. Outline enrichment should be subordinated to and support the 
structure. 

Rule 5h. Outline enrichment should add grace, lightness, and variety to 
the design. 

Kulc 5e. Outline enrichment, by its similarity, should gire a sense of oneness 
or unity to the design, binding divergent members together. 



[70] 

REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. State nature and need of enrichment. 

l 2. What two forms of enrichment are commonly used in industrial arts design? 

3. What four qualities are added to industrial design by contour enrichment? 

4. What disturbing elements should be guarded against in the application of 

contour enrichment? 

5. Describe the curve of force and its function in the contour enrichment 

of wood. 

6. What are mouldings? Name three types of mouldings, their positions with 

relation to the eye level, and some curves used in their design. 

7. Give examples of curves of continuity and contrast. By what means should 

two contrasting curves be separated? 

8. How should a curve join a straight line? 

9. Explain the grouping of contour curves in wood turning projects similar 

to a round leg or candlestick. 

10. Present five designs for book-racks, enriched by changes of the contour. 

Give architectural cross references for each design. 

11. Present three well designed table or chair legs and top and bottom rails 

and assemble one of these in a design. 



Chapter VII 



ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOURS OR OUTLINES OF 
DESIGNS IN CLAY 

In the medium we are now about to consider there is a tendency 
for the enthusiastic beginner to over-elaborate the outline into Need of 
meaningless forms. This possibly is due to the ease with which Enrichment 
clay is manipulated. It would be well then to ask two questions 
before starting with the work of enriching the simple structure. 
First, why should it be enriched — is there a positive gain by so doing? 
Second, (if the decision is favorable to enrichment) where should it be 
enriched? Let us co-ordinate the parts to assist in this process. 

Rule 5d. Parts of one design differing in junction should differ 
in appearance but be co-ordinated with the entire design. As a sugges- p ar t s 
lion to guide one in enriching an object it is necessary to consider Differing 
that parts differing in function may differ in appearance, but as in Function 
members of one family they should still be related to the whole. For 
example, a spout, handle, and lid may differ in design from I hat of the 
body of a pitcher because they differ from it in function. Again, the 
rim and foot of a vase may be slightly changed or individually accented 
because of their respective duties. The base and holder of a candle- 
stick may vary in design from the central part or handle, as each has 
a special function to perform. This rule of the change 1 of appearance 
with the change of functional service (Rule 5d), is found throughout 
architectural design. The variation in design in the base, shaft, 
and capital of a column is possibly one of the most common examples. 
While differing in function they still must hare unify and "hold Unity 
tog ether." 

These functional parts of one design, differing in sea-vice rendered, 
form centers of construct ion and may receive emphasis in outline 
enrichment. Corners and terminal points are likewise available 
for decoration and will be discussed at length later. 



78 




Figuke 107. — Clay Outline Enrichment in the Rookwood Potteries 



Enrichment in clay and metal generally means a substitution 
of curved for straight lines in the enriched portions of the design. 
These curves have the ability to impart grace, lightness, and variety 
to an object provided they are based upon constructive features 
of the problem. They must have a unit of measurement and 
must likewise be appropriate to the material. It is therefore 
necessary to deal with clay in this chapter and follow with a con- 
sideration of metal in another chapter. 

In Figures 109 to 123, Plate 24, we have a number of examples 
of variation of practically the same primary enclosing rectangle. 
Figure 108 represents a "squarely" proportioned circular bowl 
lacking both refinement of proportion and enrichment. Figure 109 
has added refinement of proportions. Figures 110 and 111 have 
introduced an outline enriched to the extent of a simple curve. The 



79 



base is the dominant width in the first, and the top dominates in 
width in the second. The outline in Figure 1 l c 2, while similar to 110 
for a portion of its length, departs at a stilted point and by curving 
in toward the base supplies more variety to the contour. AVe have 
already said that this outline curve should have a unit of measurement 
and by referring to Rules c 2a and c 2b we are able to formulate the 
following: 

Rule 5e. In cylindrical forms outline curves with a vertical tend- 
ency should hare their turning points or units of measurement in accord- 
ance with the horizontal divisions of Rules 2a and 2b. Figures 112 
and 113 have as their unit of measurement two horizontal spaces 
formed in accordance with Rule 2a, while Figures 11(1 and 117 have 
still more variety by the addition of a compound curve with its 
turning points or unit of measurement based upon Rule 2b. Figures 
114 and 115 with outlines similar to those in Figures 112 and 113, 
respectively, have an additional enrichment, the foot and rim 
accentuation. 

The new element of enrichment consists of accenting by adding 
to the design a modeled rim and a base or foot, as it is technically 
known. This not only strengthens the structure at these two 
functional points but, by adding a small section of shadow, it tends 
to break up the surface, Figure 127, and add to the variety of enrich- 
ment. Figures 124 to 127 show the building processes connected 
with this interesting and constructive addition. 

Figures 110 to 119 show variations of the preceding figures while 
Figures 120 to 123 introduce the appendages to preceding figures. 
As in the designing of all appendages, discussed in Chapter V, it is 
the designer's intention to balance spout and handle to avoid a 
one-sided or top-heavy appearance. 

One of the principal difficulties that confronts the amateur 
designer is the failure to secure variety while retaining unity. This 
is largely due to a lack of ideas upon the subject and a marked lack 
of systematic development of one theme. 

Attention is directed to the diagram in the lower portion of 
Plate L 24. The idea is to start with some simple form in columns 
A, />, C\ D, /'J, F, Figure 1 L 28. Figure 12!) introduces tiro horizontal 



Unit of 
Measurement 
for Curves 
in Outline 
Enrichment 



Accentuation 
of Functional 
Parts in Clay 



Appendages 



divisions. 



Ki 



lie 2a. 



The blade portion is the dominant section. 



so 



• OUTL1ME. EHRICHME.HT OF THE PRIMARY MA^<5 IN CLAY • 
GOOD COHSTKUCnVE DESIGN 15 "A FREE AHD ADEQUATE. EhBODlMEhT OF 
AM IDEA IN AFORM PECULIARLY APPROPRIATE TO THE IDEA ITSELF "HEC=,El_ • 





FIC--!0P> FiG-IOS- FIG-MO- FIG- 111 FiG-llZ FIG.H3- Fl&MA FIG-US' 






KICiMIT- FlG-llfl FlG-llO- FlC-rlZO- FIG-IZl FIG- IZX- FI&.IZ3- 

A SIMPLE DEVICE, for. PoTTBRY DESIGNING COM5I5T5 OF A SHEET OF 

Paper folded oh line** fig,- 116 -• BY cutting the ©utune of one side. .the 

OPPOSITE "SIDE 15 LKEvSliE FORMED: /*•* TIN TEMPLATE MAf 3E FOKMEO F1?OM 

the papeis Patter n akd 



. ruwicu: Ann icni'UMt hmi o t ruiti 
USED TO TEST THE COS5TEOCTION 



19 ^w 


tA 


. -"fj., **■' ^ 


is? 


"y/ -Jm 


a/2t 


t IA Jk 




Mrja 




F .-if*iai«afc* J C^ 


Pwf' fltv 


~«j^. 1t *=a^^ 


:;|0 •Wf& 




fig- 1-2.^- 



FIG- IZ5- 



FIG- IZS" 



FlCV I2-T- 



-COHSTKUCTIVE EVOLUTION OF OUTUrtE ENRICHMENT : ACCENTUATiOM OF THE t^ AND FOOT- 




o 



m ilk ill 




— Fl&- lift- 

A-B-CD • MO HORL DIVISIONS 
T • F ■ LOYV * DIVIMOMS 



— FIG- 1 29- 

TWO HORIZONTAL. SPACE. 
DWSIOH-S WITH OPPeR 
SPACE. T>OMlHANT 

— FIG -ISO. 

TWO HORIZONTAL. SPACE 
DIVISION WITH LOWER 
SPACE DOMINAMT 

— FIG-131 

THKEE ^Oe\zOMTAl_"SPAcE 
DIVISIONS WITH CEMTEE 
5PACE "DorllNAHT 



ENRICHMENT OF THE SIMPLE FORMS OH LINE'vv/' BY COMBINING TWO PROCESSES: 
I- VARYING THE POSITION AND NUMBER OF THE HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS C^OLES 2A AND B) AND 
2Bi SYSTEMATICALLY VARYING THE BASE Oe FOOT WIDTH 5 FR0M"w"TO2" BY MEANS OF THE. 
CONVERGING LINES 'C- THE WIDTH ANO HEIGHT OF THE PRIMARY MASS INCONSTANT- 



Ak. J L Jlk ilL Jl! 



Plate 24 



[81] 

Notice the change in outlines based upon this division. Figure 130 

raises the division point of the two subdivisions into the upper half 

of the object. This brings out the need of an accented foot whieh is, ys e , ma 1C 
i j * /r* * . • i -iii- i Development 

however, not ot sufficient prominence to be considered as a horizontal of outline 

spacing. Figure 131 raises the horizontal division points, again Enrichment 
causing the introduction of a larger foot and now qualifying it as a in Clay 
division of the whole mass. This then makes our design a three- 
division problem, Rule c 2b, and places it under the restrictions of 
Rule 5e. 

The feet of all of the bowls have been systematically decreased 
in width by the converging lines C-C while the tops have been 
maintained constant in width. By this simple diagram an infinite 
number of designs may be formed and the choice of selection from the 
series, thoughtfully exercised, will supply the ideal bowl, ready 
to be translated into a full size working drawing. It is not the idea, 
however, to guarantee a perfect design in each one of these divisions 
as that would be practically impossible, but we have systematically 
applied a method of determination for stimulating the imagination. 
A series of articles by F. II. Rhead in the Keramic Studio first sug- 
gested the system of development by means of graded rectangles. 

Plate L 25 shows a further elaboration of the succeeding themes. Candlesticks 
The candlestick series. Figures 13 c 2 to 13S, introduces two or three- 
space division problems with contour turning poinls at vi, Rule 5e, 
and with accented or embryonic feet and rims. The change from 
the purely functional and unenriched member of Figure 13 c 2 through 
the series shows the enrichment changing slightly to meet the needs 
of the three functional parts: the base, the handle, and the candle 
socket. Rule .5(1. 

Figure 139 shows a series of illustrations representing variations 
for containers. The first figure is without enrichment, followed by Containers 
variations of the outline in the manner already suggested. 

Figure 140 indicates a series of pourers with the 1 least attractive 
design on the left (Mid. This unsatisfactory design is found, upon Pourers 
analysis, to be due to centrally placed horizontal division violating 
Rule c h\. The design of the appendages in this series will again be 
found to conform with the rules in Chapter V. The units of measure- 
ment for the curves mav be readilv ascertained from observation. 



82 



OUT LIME ErtRTICHMEMT OF THE. PENARY HASS IN CLAY WITH METH0D5 0F 

SECURING VARIETY • 




FIG -132/ FI&155- FIG134-- FIG13S- FIG13&- FIG- 1ST- FIG1SS- 

UNE.NKICHEO CAMOLE 5TICK.C Fife. 132 ) v/ ITH SI/- POSSIBLE VARlATiOMS 
QF CURVED OUT Line. EH^ICHMEnr 



£S3 




FOUR VARIATIONS OF COHTAltlEK WITH SLIGHT CH.AHGE OF PROPORTIONS 

FHG- 139- 



^v 




--VARIATIONS 



OF POU^EK. N^lTN AT^EHDA&ES 
FIG- I4-0- 



wwiiwr im i ft iX- 



FORMS WITH THE SAT1E WIDTHS FORMS WITH THE 5AME HEIGHT 

BUT VARYING IH HEIGHT • £,i_)T VARYING IN WIDTH 



4 L- Q-fi- 

UMMlll 



J II hi 1 1 ■ , 



FIGKi- -HORIZONTAL PM 



FIG- I4-Z- •YECTICALP'M 



FIGUFcE-S 14-1 AriD\4-2.lLLU3TR.ATF_ A METHOD OF SYSTEMATICALLY 
0E5IGH1HG A 5E.R.1ES OF FORMS SIMILAR. IN OUTLIHE. 5<JT VARY- 
ING IN THE PROPORTIONS OF THE. PRIMARY MASSES- SELECTION 
OF THE. MOST PLEASING OESlGM SHOULD J5E FOLLOWED BV A 
FULL 511-E WORKING DKAWlHG* 



Plate 25 



[ 83 j 

Figure 141 is useful for the following purpose. It is desirable 
at times to develop a number of similar forms for a set, with a grad- „. .. . 
ually increasing ratio of proportions, either in height or width, with Varying 
Figure 141 shows how the height may be increased while maintaining Primary 
a common width. Notice the gradual proportionate increase of the Masses 
height of the neck A-B as well as that of the body. The line A' is of 
the utmost value in ascertaining the height of the intermediate 
bowls. The eye should now be so trained that the height of the neck 
A-B on the last bowl can be readily proportioned by eye measurement 
to that of the first bowl. A line similar to A' will give the intermediate 
points. 

Figure 14 c 2 varies the width in a similar manner. Notice the 
gradually decreasing distances C-D-E-F, the spaces for which may 
be determined by the eye. 

lXSTRTCTIOX SHKET 

Plate 2(i suggests the sequential progression of steps lending to the potter's 
working drawing. 

SUMMARY OF DHS1GX STEPS 

(a) Draw the primary rectangle. 

(b) Add limits of functional parts: handle, spout, cover, etc. 

(c) Establish unit of measurement for primary rectangle contour curves. 

(d) Design contour of primary mass and add the appendages to it, observing 

the rules pertaining to appendages and unit of measurement. 

(e) Dimension and otherwise prepare the drawing for the potter's use. This 

includes the planning of a working drawing, one-eighth larger in all 
directions than the preliminary design, to allow for the shrinkage of 
the clay body. The working drawing should also be in partial sections 
to show the construction of the interior of the ware. 

SUGGESTED PRORLEM 

Design a teapot, lea caddy, and cup showing a common unity in contour 
design. (Plate S-».) 

SUMMARY OF RELICS 

Rule 5d. I'd'ls of t> nr design differing in function .should differ in appearance 
but be ro-ordiiiuleil uilli llie entire design. 

Ride .>e. In cylindrical forms outline eurres with a vertical tcndenci/ should 



84 



ei)LE5 5D AriD 5E- COMTOUE. 0£ OUTLINE CneiCNnmT • CLAY' 

INSTRUCTION SHEET • 



-ft- 



N- 



FICx • A • THE PEIHAET MASS 



/ ) 



-Viv 



Y- 



FIG • B • U1YIDCD INTO FUNCTIONAL PAETS 




FIG • C • ESTABLISHMENT OF UN IT OF MEASUEEMEMTV- C0NTOUK5 ETC' 




FIG-D- POTTE-e'5 WORKING "DRAWING WITH © ADDED TO 
ALLOW "FOR SHRINKAGE IN FIRING • 



Plate 26 



85 



huve their turning points or units of measurement in accordance with the 
horizontal divisions of Rules 2a and 2b. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. Give and illustrate the rule governing the change in the appearance of 

the design with the change of functional service. 

2. What is the aesthetic value of curves in outline enrichment? 

3. Correlate the rule governing the unit of measurement for vertical contour 

curves with the rules controlling horizontal divisions. 

4. Show, by a diagram, the method of systematically varying the contours of 

circular forms: (a) by changing the horizontal divisions; (b) by varying 
the proportion of the primary mass. 

5. What is the value of accenting the functional parts in clay design? 




Courtesy of .hums Mil, 

Figure lV2t\. — Outline and Surface Enrichment in College Pottery 



University 



86 



• OUTLIME. EHKlCHnChT OF THE PElMM^Y MASSES OF THE FSASEE. METALS* 

EMKICHMEMT OF EDGES - COF2HE.R1S - INTERMEDIATE POIHT.5 - APPEHDA<3ES 
SEE PLATE i5 FOK TEKMIHAUSLirlKSOETAiUS" 



r 



1 



FIGI45 • Fl& I4-4-- PIG, ■ lA-S- 

EMRllCHMEHT OF EDGEJ BV CHWFERiri& • KouflOlMS • L.APPIH&- 






FIG-I4-S- 



'© ll 




FIG- 14-7 




FIG- 14-6- \ Fie> I4-Q- 

• ENRICHMENT OF COJSHEE5&T FILING AND 3AWIHG:D£PEN0EMT OUTLINE 
FlGISV Flft-lSZ- 




PPertOAGB 



Fid- ISO- 




ETIKICHMEMT OF C0RNE&5 AMD APPENDAGES R>W SENDING • 
FREE OUTLIME5 





1- 


\ 



RGM53 ; HINGE VARIATIONS SHOWING CLOSE RELATION F5ETWE.EN 
FurtCTlONAL. FEATURES (T2IVE.T5- 'SCREWS-eTC} A^D OUTLINE ENRICH 
AEE. TOPICAL EXAMPLES OF DEPENDENT OUTLINES- 



FIG • 154- 



INTEJS 
MENT 



IOR, 
THEV 




ENRICHMENT OF W 

INTERMEDIATE 
POIHT5 IN THE 

ouTUrtE.'-" 



FIG- 155 




FIG- 156 



Plate c 27 



Chapter VIII 



ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOURS OR OUTLINES OF 
DESIGNS IN BASE AND PRECIOUS METALS 

The contours of clay forms are generally free to follow the curves 
and take the direction dictated by the knowledge and taste of the 
designer. Metal outlines are more restricted in this respect. Metal 
is frequently associated with service and consequently its design 
is often governed by its intended use. For example, if we were lo 
design a metal drawer pull for a buffet, it would have to be considered 
in relation to the character and shape of the buffet. Again, the 
screws with which it is attached to the buffet would influence its 
outline design. It is, in other words, a dependent outline. 

To distinguish between an unrestricted outline and one bound 
by other considerations we will term the restricted outline a dependent 
outline, for its enrichment must be related to other forms either 
within or without its surface. A free outline on (he other hand is one 
in which the designer is free to use his ideas unrestricted by any other 
outside consideration, except service and design consistent with the 
material. 

In order to emphasize the nature of a dependent outline we have 
Rule of. Dependent outline enrichment s/iould be related to essential 
parts of a design and influenced by their forms and functions; it must 
be consistent with the idea of the subject. 

We will start with the simplest form of outline enrichment of 
base metals, the decoration of an edge. It is contrary to the laws of 
service to leave sharp edges on articles intended for intimate house- 
hold use, except where cutting edges are required. The rounding 
of sharp edges is likewise dictated by the laws of beauty. The 
transition from one plane surface to another is assisted by a rounded 
edge, as the eye lakes kindly to the softened play of light and shade. 

This gives us the simplest form of en rich in en I the beveled, cham- 
fered, or rounded edge. Figures 14'3 and 144, Plate ^7. The rim of a 

[H7] 



Enrichment 
of the Base 
Metals — 
Iron, Copper, 
Brass, Bronze 



Free and 

Dependent 

Outlines 



Enrichment 
of Edges 



88 



Enrichment 
of Functional 
Parts 



Enrichment 
of Corners 



Enrichment 

of 

Appendages 



thin lS~gauge plate is likewise improved and strengthened by lapping 
the edge as shown in Figure 145, giving the rounded effect shown in 
Figure 144. 

There are six important functional parts with which we are 
brought into common contact in industrial design of base metals. 
There are many more, but these are the most common and con- 
sequently are of the utmost importance to the designer as design 
centers. These parts are itemized as follows: (1) Corners, ( c 2) Ap- 
pendages, (3) Intermediate Points, (4) Terminals, (5) Links, 
((>) Details. As the decorative treatment of each part varies with 
the functional duty. Rule 5d, separate treatment and consideration 
of each part will be necessary. 

Corners, as extreme turning points of a design, arc often found 
convenient for the location of screw holes, rivets, etc. These impor- 
tant construction elements become prominent functional parts of the 
design and by custom and the laws of design, Rule 5d, they are 
capable of receiving outline enrichment. Bui the contour of the 
corner must be related to the screws or rivets, particularly if they are 
near the edge, hence our outline becomes a dependent outline and as 
such must be related to the rivets or screws by Rule of. 

Figures 140 to 149 show various arrangements of this type of 
design. The unity of the design is not lost, and the functional parts 
are enriched by contours related to the elements of service (rivets). 
Figure 1.53 shows another but slightly modified example of the same 
laws applied to hinge construction. The enriched outline in this 
case is closely associated with the holes in the hinge. The hinges 
in turn must be related to the object for which they are designed. 
Figure 150 gives a common example of corner enrichment by means 
of varying the edge at the corners, i.e., by rounding the tray corners. 

As appendages have distinct functional duties their design may 
vary as the design of the arm of the human figure differs from the 
head. Yet, as parts of the same body, they must fit the shape of the 
object to which they are attached. The candle holder and handle as 
appendages in Figure 150 are designed in sympathetic relation by 
means of tangential and similar curves sufficiently varied to give the 
eye a feeling of variety in the design. The novel single flower 
holders, Figures 151 and 15 c 2, with the glass test tube acting as a 



[89] 

container show other possible forms of the appendage design. The 
first is informal while the second is formal, but both adhere to the 
first simple rules of appendage design. Rule 4a, etc. 

The enrichment of center or intermediate points should be handled 
with great care and with a definite reason. Careless handling may E . , 
cause the design to lack unity. Figures 154 and 155 show a simple f j n t er _ 
twist as enrichment. The serviceable reason for this is to obtain a mediate 
grip at the point of the twist. Again, it varies the character of the Points 




Figfuk 1.5Ga. — Candlestick, Rendered by K. R. 

straight edges and adds interest without loss of compactness or unity. 
If one is desirous of widening a vertical or horizontal rod, the enrich- 
ment made by welding a number of small rods toget her with a spread- 
ing twist gives a pleasing and serviceable handle. Figure 15(5. 

As the public demands a happy ending to a story or a play, so does 
the eye demand a well-designed ending to a design. The part that 
terminal enrichment plays in industrial design is, therefore, to say Enrichment 
the least, important to us as designers. Figure 157 illustrates of Terminals 
terminals in thin metal and is shown bv courtesy of the School Arts 



90 



OUTLltiE. EneiCHMEMT OF THE PRIMARY MAii IH THE BA3EJS METALS • THE 
ENKICHMEt-iT OF TE.R.MIINA.|_S , LIHK.5^ AHD DE.TAIL5 • • FREE.' OUTLIHEO • 



/~\ 





o \JI 



EXPAHDIMG AHD BEND- 
ING- FIG- ifeO- FlG-157 • SAWIMG AND FILING. 



FIG- 158- doming 



MOTE.: FOR TO'RNlNG> 
SEE PLATE 2.1 



FORMS OF TERMINAL EHt^lCHMEMT 

F1&-I63T5EHD1H5 DETA\\_ 




•THE. IOHIC VOLUTE. OK 
CURVE OF I5EAOTV 
A TEK.MIMA.L CURVE OF - 
EXTREME. IMPOKTAMCE 
SEE" V " 



THE ADAPTED 
GREEK 

SCROLL - 




FIG -161 
•BEMD1MG 
•T/mTlHG fcf\ 
•WELDlttC. 
•EXPAttOlrtG 




APPEnOA.GE. 




FIGM64" IS 
U5E.FUL AS A 
COMIiECTlHG 
7/ DETAIL AMD IN A 
MODIFIED FOKM 
A5 A LlHK.- 



UMC 



UHKS AMD TERMI- 
NAL HOOt CURVES 
BEHDlhG- 'KAISINe.- 
CAVriHGFIG'165- 



FIG- 162 -^.EMDIMG 




Plate 28 



91 



Magazine from one of the articles by Mr. Augustus Rose. The out- 
lines are in part dependent in character, controlled by rivets. Notice 
the change of curve as the function changes from the dependent 
curve of the rivet area to the free outline of the handle and again from 
the handle to the cutting blade; a functional change of marked 
character, but in thorough unity with the entire design. It is again 
emphasized that whether the design possesses a free or a dependent 
outline, or a combination of both types, all parts of the design must 
be held together by entire unity. The rivets are occasionally placed 
toward the edge and a domed boss is used to accent the center as is 
shown in Figure 1.58. 

The Ionic Volute 

As the Curve of Force was a valuable curve in wood construction, 
so wc find it an equally valuable curve for wrought metal. Its 
recurrence again and again in industrial design leads us to appreciate 
its value in the 1 arts. It is the Ionic volute handed down to us in its 
present form from the time of the Greeks, who developed it to a high 
state of perfection. 

While its geometric development is a tedious process, it may be 
easily constructed for practical purposes by the following method. 
In Figure 159, P represents a small cylinder of wood, possibly a 
dowel. A strong piece of thread, or fine wire, is wrapped around the 
base of the dowel a number of times and a loop is formed in the free 
end. A pencil with a sharp point is inserted in the loop and the 
pencil and dowel are placed together on a sheet of paper. As the 
thread unwinds from the dowel the point of the pencil will describe 
a volute which may be developed indefinitely. It will be noticed 
that no corresponding parts of the curve are concentric and it thus 
has constant variety. 1 1 has been termed \he Curve of Beauty 
and is found in nature in [he wonderfully designed shell of the 
nautilus. 

It is advisable to form several templates for the volute out of bent 
wrought iron, of different sizes, and to practice drawing the curve 
many times to accustom the hand and [he eye to its changes of direc- 
tion. The "eye" or center portion is sometimes terminated by 
thinning and expanding in I he manner shown in Figure 1(10. 



Free and 
Dependent 
Contour 
Enrichment 



Terminal 
Enrichment 
in Wrought 
Metal 



Curve of 
Beauty 



<h2 



OUTLINE EMfSICHMEnTOF THE PRIMARY MA55 IM PRECIOUS METALS* SILVER* 
ADEPEHDEHT CVJTUNE RELATED TO AND EHC LOTS IMG. A 5EMI- PRECIOUS 5TOME * 
CA-tSUCHOH AKO CU5HION COT -STOrtES X. 



FIG -166 



Fic.ni- 



FIG- 167- 



Fl&lTZ- 



FIG- 163- 



FIG -173- 



FIG- l£>& 



FJG-ITO 



FIQI15 



FIG- 174- • 



3 



FIG- 176- FIG -177- FI&-IT8- FIG- 179 - \|l/ 

MOTF THE CONTROLLING IMFLDEMCE. OF THE UOHG APUS OF STOME FI&- ISO 

g* lt '"' LaL ^VMlS T i tr^ tr\ ■ r-rmlf il '- J m i nt!*" — ■ ,^ ,,ff J ,*> JWpr; ^ 

F1&I31- fig- 182.- FIG-1&3- 

ADEPErtDEttT OUTLIME SEEM IN SIDE YlEW- MOTE RI5E TO OUTLINE OF *5TOME- 

MOTIVES FOR. ODTUME EMKiCHfVEMT WITH CQMMKUCTIOrt 



V7 



«& 




«f ■ 



1 



FIG- 185 




FIG 186- 



FIG". 184- 



APPUCATION OF 
im^icHr-iEHTTCl ^[i^JJt 
OUTLIHE. W$8S«®5 



FIG- 18T- 



n 



<& 




FT5EE CX.1TUMES 




AP^EHD/xc-iE. 




ACCEMTEr> 

OUTLIHE 



Fits-i&a 



y'^%, ACCEHTED 
St/It "• %,0UTL1ME 

FI&190 




FIG- 191 



Platk 21) 



93 



One form of application of the volute is shown in the terminal 
points of the candlestick in Figure 161. It is here shown combined 
with the second volute in the form of a reverse curve. In Figure 1G C 2, 
it has been combined with a smaller but reversed volute at the upper 
end. The entire and combined curv«e is commonly known as a 
Greek Scroll. In Figure 163 the Greek Scroll has been combined 
with the reverse curve of Figure 1(51 to form a portion of the bracket. 
In this figure we find the familiar curve of force faithfully serving its 
function as a supporting member for the top portion of the bracket. 

A link is a convenient filler in connecting parts of a right angle. 
It likewise serves as a brace in connecting several disconnected parts 
and is useful in maintaining the unity of a design. Figure 164 shows 
a common form of link with its ends thinned and expanded as shown 
in Figure 160. This construction may, however, be disregarded as it 
is technically quite difficult to accomplish. 

Details are the smaller portions of a design and are similar to the 
trimmings and minor brackets of a building in relative importance. 
They enter to a considerable extent into wrought metal grille design, 
and are generally formed of the link, Greek scroll, or the Ionic volute, 
so as to be in harmony with the other parts of the design outline. 
Rule of. Their presence and use may be readily detected on Plate *-28. 

Rule 5g. A curve should join a straight line irifh cither a tangential 
or right angle junction. 

As we are now familiar with continuity in wood moulding curves 
we should feel, in reviewing the figures in this chapter, the value of 
flowing continuity and tangential junction points (Ruleog) necessary 
in wrought metal enrichment'. The curves that we have considered 
are adapted to the materials and a comparatively large and new field 
of design is opened to the designer through a combination of curves 
mentioned. Plate 'M) is self-explanatory and brings out the general 
application of the foregoing principles as applied to cast bronze 
hardware. It is interesting to notice the change of enrichment 
paralleling the change of function as outlined in Rule .3d. 



Greek 
Scroll 



Enrichment 
of Links 



Enrichment 
of Details 



Summary of 

Wrought 

Metal 

Free Outline 

Enrichment 



Oi'tlixi-: Kxiucil\ii:xt of Pin:riors Mktals 

Outline 
Little has been written regarding the designing of jewelry. As Enrichment 

can be readily seen, a semi-precious stone is the controlling factor of Silver 



94 





GROUP OF THREE OBJECTS 
SHOWING ENRICHMENT Of CORNER 
NOTE ENRICHMENT OF INTER- 
MEDIATE POINTS OF KNOCKER 



i 



m 



SIX OBJECTS 
SHOWING 
TERMINAL OUT- 
LINE ENRICHMENT 





/f 

Q 



r^ 



FOUR OBJECTS 
SHOV/ING ACCENTED 
OUTLINE ENRICHMENT 




yirVU 




TWO OBJECTS 
SHOWING OUTLINE 
ENRICHMENT OF 
INTERMEDIATE 
POINT (CENTER) 



10 






-n'.','h J,"* .'" »*. 








a ,--.;■:'., f ^ 



Plate 30 



Courtesy of P. and F. Corbin 



05 



Relation of 
Stone to 
Contour 



in the major portion of the designs with silver as a background. 
Any enrichment merely accentuates the beauty of the setting. This stones 
statement would lead us to consider the outline as dependent in and Their 
character and thoroughly related to the stone. It is necessary then Cuttings 
to take the stone as a point of departure. The standard stone cut- 
tings used in simple jewelry are shown in Figures 166 to 170. The 
first three and the last are caboclion cut, elliptical in contour with 
flat bottoms. The long axes have been drawn in each instance. 

With Figures 171 to 174 we begin to see the close relation between 
the stone and its enclosing form. Rule 5f. A longer major axis 
in the stone calls for an increased length in the corresponding axis 
of the silver foundation or background. It is really a re-echo of 
the proportions of the primary mass of the stone in the mass of the 
silver. It is well for the beginner to make the axis of the si one and 
the silver blank coincide and to use this long axis as a basis for 
future enrichment. In a vertical primary mass, similar to the one 
shown in Figure 180, it is better design to place the stone a short 
distance above the geometric cenler of the mass as il insures a sense 
of stability and balance. A stone when placed toward the bottom 
of a design of this nature is inclined to give a feeling of "settling 
down" or lost balance. 

Figure 17(5 varies I ho design shown in Figure 171. The two 
circles related to the stone are connected by four silver grains or balls. 
Fijnire 177 shows an attempt to enrich the contour of the silver, 
but there is a resulting tendency lo detract from I he simplicity of 
the unbroken outline and, as a result, little is gained by its attempted 
enrichment. Figures 178 and 179 show a belter form of enrichment 
by accentuating the outline. This may bo accomplished either by 
engraving a single line paralleling the contour or by soldering a thin 
wire around the outline. 

While the lop view of an article of jewelry may have been carefully Need of 
designed the side view in inosl instances is totally neglected. The Top and 
side view should show a steady gradual ion from I lie surface of I he Side Views 
silver lo the outline of the stone. This prevents the stone 1 from 
bulging from the surface like a sudden and unusual growth. Doming, 
small wedges of silver, or a twist around the bezel may accomplish 
this as can be readilv seen in Figures 181. 18 v 2, and 18I>. 



96 



eUL.es 5D- 5E 5F-5S COhTOUe. OE OUTLIhE ENeiOWEMT • CLAY • METAL' 

irtsTeucnori shect • 



APPENDAGE 



limkl 



ZA 



peiMAey 

MASS 



_s^ 



J 



TICtA- THE" PEIHAKY RE.CTAhC-.LE. TICtB- FUNCTIONAL DIVISIONS 



MOTE". 

THIS 5HEET ILLUSTRATES 
THE DESIGN PROCESSES OF 
A LAMP 

ALLCLAY PACTS SHOULD 
BE TRANSLATED INTO A 
POTTERS DPAWIHG ■ 




V) N^/ 



FICtC-TWO DESIGNS FO£ 

conToue Ene^cHnEriT • 




FICtD- FINAL SELECTION Feon 
'C DEVELOPED INTO WORKING DT2AWIM6 



Plate 31 



97 



While emphasis should be placed upon simplicity of outline, 
certain well regulated forms of enrichment may be added to the 
contour and enhance the beauty of the stone. Such motives with 
constructive steps are shown in Figure 184 and their application in 
Figures 185 to 188. It will be noticed that the enrichment invar- 
iably leads up to the stone which is the center of interest in the design. 
The ornament is likewise based upon the prominent axes of the stone. 

Figures 189, 190, and 191 are types of beaten and raised silver 
work and show characteristic forms in silver, with two examples of 
accented outline enrichment. As they are curvilinear forms, their 
design is similar in many ways to clay forms of similar proportions 
and uses. 



Motives 
for Outline 
Enrichment 
in Silver 



Free Outline 
Enrichment 
in Silver 



INSTRUCTION SHEET 

Plate 31 .shows the design .steps necessary to the evolution of a lamp in two 
materials. A full size working drawing should follow Figure D. 

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS 

(a) Draw the unenriehed primary mass. 

(6) For dependent contours, locate the elements of service within the primary 
mass. This may he interpreted to mean rivets, screw holes, semi-precious 
stones, etc. 

(c) Determine upon the portion of the contours to he enriched, gauged by its 
need for grace, lightness, and variety. This enrichment is preferably 
concentrated at the following points: edges, corners, appendages, inter- 
mediate points, terminals, links, and details. The.se points may be com- 
bined provided the result does not violate the simplicity of the structural 
lilies. 

((/) Draw the enrichment in the predetermined area, causing it to be in harmony 
with such interior functional parts as screw holes, rivets, semi-precious 
stones, etc. Utilize suggested curves. 

(e) Review all of the contour curves added to the design. Are they feeble 
compass curves or do they have the character of long sweeping curves 
with short "snappy" turns for variety? 

(/) Test the entire design for unity. Does the eye move smoothly through 
all parts of the contour? Does the design "hold together"? Are all 
links and appendages joined to the primary mass in a graceful tangential 
manner? 

{(j) Dimension, add additional views, and details, if necessary, and otherwise 
prepare the drawing for shop use. 



SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 

Design an electric table lam]) with square copper rod as a support, feet, and 
copper shade. 

Design a hinge for a cedar chest. 



08 



SUMMARY OF RULES 

Rule 5f. Dependent outline enrichment should be related to essential parts of 
a design and influenced by their forms and functions; it must be consistent with 
the idea of the subject. 

Rule 5g. A curve should join a straight line with either a tangential or right 
angle junction. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. Contrast contour enrichment of wood, clay, and metal. 

2. Define free and dependent outline in contour enrichment of base metal. 

3. Describe and explain the use of the Ionic volute in contour enrichment 

of metal. 

4. Define and present illustrations of contour enrichment designed for edges, 

corners, appendages, intermediate points, terminals, links, and other 
details in base metal. 

5. Define and illustrate free and dependent contour enrichment of precious 

metal. 




Figure 190a. — Union of Outline Enrichment on Clav and Metal 



Chapter IX 

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY 
MASSES IN WOOD 



"With this chapter we enter upon a consideration of the third and 
last major division of Industrial Arts Design, that of Surface Enrich- 
ment. 

We have considered in previous chapters the subject of contour 
or outline enrichment. Now consider for a moment the fact that 
articles such as a square box, or tile, are not suited to outline enrich- 
ment, yet they have large, flat, and rather monotonous surfaces 
capable of decoration. It is readily seen that such surfaces will 
admit of further elaboration which we will distinguish from contour 
enrichment by using the term Surface Enrichment. As in contour 
enrichment, so in surface enrichment, the added element of design 
not only increases the beauty of the object but it likewise, if properly 
applied, gives apparent added strength to the structure. 

Rule (5a. Surfaces- to be enriched must admit of enrichment. 

Strictly utilitarian articles should not be ornamented by surface 
enrichment. As an example, a wooden mixing spoon, bowl, or wooden 
knife 1 handle should not be enriched by carving, as the carving would 
interfere with the proper cleansing of the article. A surface exposed 
to considerable wear should not be enriched. Objects not strictly 
in the utilitarian class, such as a paper knife, book stall, envelope 
holder, or library table may be appropriately enriched in an unosten- 
tatious manner so that they will harmonize with their surroundings. 
But the enrichment should first be placed upon the surface 1 in such a 
manner that it will not interfere with the functional use of the article 
for service. Large projections upon I lie back of a chair or upon the 
handle of a paper cutter are unpleasant and interfere with intended 
uses. 



Nature and 
Need of 
Surface 
Enrichment 



When and 
Where to 
Enrich a 
Surface 



!)!) 



[100] 




101 



Rule Ob. Surface enrichment must be related to the structural 
contours but must not obscure the actual structure. 

Careful consideration should be given to the often-mentioned law 
that the surface enrichment must be thoroughly related to structure 
and contour but not so as to obscure either. We must keep in mind 
the fact that it is necessary to support the structure, not to cover 
it up by related ornament, as in Figure 191a. 

Most critics of industrial design complain of an overwhelming 
desire upon the part of the designer to over-decora I e the structure. 
Surface enrichment runs wild over steam radiators, stoves, and 
wooden rocking chairs. Reserve is the watchword recommended as 
of extreme importance. The illustrations in this chapter are re- 
stricted to a limited range of design motives for the express purpose 
of simplifying the number of recommended methods. 

Rule (Je. The treatment must be appropriate to the material. 

The close-fibered woods with smooth, even textures are capable 
of more delicate enrichment than woods of coarser grain. Small 
articles are generally seen from a close range and should, therefore, 
be ornamented with finer decoration than large articles, such as 
a piece of furniture that is to be seen from a distance. Tin 1 latter 
should have surface enrichment of sufficient boldness to "carry" 
or to be distinct from a distant point. Furthermore the enrichment 
should not have a "stuck on" appearance, but be an integral part of 
the original mass. 

There are three distinct means of ornamenting wood: (1) inlay- 
ing, depending for interest upon the difference in value and hue of the 
different inlaying woods used; ( L 2) carved enrichment, depending 
upon line and mass for its beauty and made visible by contrasts of 
light and shade; (3) painting or staining of the surface with the interest 
dependent upon the colors or stains and their relation to each other 
and to the hue of the wood. It has been deemed wise to consider the 
first two types in the present chapter, and leave the last type for 
later consideration. In Chapters XV, XVI, and XVI I. accentuation 
has been placed on wood coloring. The designer is advised to read 
those chapters before attempting to slain or color his problem. 

Treating surface enrichment in its listed order we find thai inlay- 
ing is one of t he most common and best forms of enrichment for wood 



Conservative 
Use of 
Ornament 



Relation of 
Enrichment 
to Material 



Appropriate 
Methods of 
Surface 
Enrichment 
for Wood 



Inlaying 



102 



• STRAIGHT LIME 
Surface EriKicHMeriT of a 5mall Primarv Maso ih WOOD • 

» BAMDS AHO BORDERS ' 
• FOR. IMLAMMG - CARVIH& « STV^lW IPH<^ • 
AGROUP OF &AM05 WITH HORITLOriTAU OR " OMWARD'rHYTHMIC MOVELMEriT 



• SIMPLE. 


BAMO • 




• DOUBLE 


BAHD • 






•TRIPLE. 


BAMD • 


• 51MGI-E. BAPIO 


■ ACCENTED - 



•TRIPLE. BATIO • ACCE/1TED 
FIG-192 • 

* BOKDER5 * 



■■■■■■■■■■I 

BORDER REPETITION WITHOUT ACCEMT * * ©ORDER, WITHOUT ACCENT • ir-iTi^o- 
FIG -193 • OUCir<C3 EAT1D- FiG-194- 



ilililililihlililililil HEEIH 




BORDER REPETITION • ACCEMTED- • BORDER. ACCENTED • FIG -ISO 

FtC-i-195- 



iJBJST ISBBp 



FIG- 197- ACCENTED BORDER'S (GREEKS 






FIG-I9S - ACCENTED AMD 5ALAMCEO &ORDE.R-3 
l5At^CEMIC) 



Plate 32 



103 



work. As inlaying readily adapts itself to bands and borders, 
emphasis is placed upon them. 

Rule 6i. Inlayed enrichment should never form strong or glaring 
contrasts with the parent surface. 

Two conspicuous errors are often associated with inlaid designs. 
The first is the use of woods affording a glaring contrast with that of 
the project. Figure 209, Page 106. The right contrast of value is Errors in 
established when the inlay seems neither to rise from the surface nor Wood Inlay 
sink through it. It should remain on the surface of the plane to be 
enriched, for it is surface enrichment. Figures 210, 211, and 212 are 
illustrative of pleasing contrasts. 

The second specific glaring error is the use of unrelated inlay. 
As an example, an Indian club is created by glueing many vari-colored 
woods around a central core. The result of the pattern so formed has 
little relation to the structural lines, fails entirely to support them, 
and, as a result, should be discarded. 

Carving is difficult for the average beginner in wood working 
design, therefore merely the simplest forms of the craft are suggested Carving 
as advisable. Figure 205a. If an elaborate design is desired (Figure 
205c), it should be first drawn in outline and finally modeled in relief 
by Plastelene. This model is then an effective guide for the carver, 
supplementing the original outline drawing. 

Carving may be roughly divided into the following groups: 

(1) high relief carving similar to heads, human figures, and capitals; Divisions of 

(2) low relief carving in which the planes have been flattened to a Carving 
comparatively short distance above the original block of wood, 

such as panels, which are good examples of this group: (3) pierced 
carving where the background has been entirely cut away in places, 
such as screens, which illustrate this type; (4) incised carving in which 
the design has been depressed below the surface of the wood. Geo- 
metric chip carving is a representative type of this group. There are 
possible variations and combinations of these groups. 

Rule (ij. Cur red surface enrichment should hare the appearance of 
belonging to the parent mass. 

The central governing thought in all carved designs is to show an 
interesting proportion of light and shade coupled with a unity between 
the raised portion of the design and the background. If the earv- 



104 



5URFACE ENRICHMENT OF SHALL PRIMARY MA5SE5 /M WOOD WITH 
BORDERS OF CURVED AMD STRAIGHT LINES • 
• FOR INLAWING • CARVING • STAINING 

FIG • 199 • A "5TRAIGHT LIME Urt IT REPEATED 
AXI5 0F5WMCTRY — -> "* A ^ B> 



OR. INCEPTIVE 



AM ACCENTED GROUPED AM 



^ ^< 

D BALANCED UNIT 




WITH TWO FORMS OF ENRICHED 



APPLICATIONS TO IN LAY 




F/S-200- THE LEADING UHES OR. SK.E.LE.TOM OF A CAEved BOKDER. 
THE QUALITIES OF INTERESTING FORMS FOR CLOTHING LEADING LINES OF A BOEDER 




ill 



'MOTECUEYES 1 
F0*,CE<WA 
PEVEIJSAETC 




K 



^ 



««. 



A FORM WITHOUT 
INTEREST 
RG-201 • 



A MONOTONOUS A DYNAMIC FORM STRONG O^MAMIC FORI13 WITH A 
FORM • WITH RHYTHM COMMON RYTHMIC MOVEMENT 

FIC-i-ZOl.- RG..203- PG104. 




FIG-IOS- THE LEADING UHE5 OF riGlOO ARE EMWCHEO OR. CLOTHED 8V INTERESTING 
FQ2M5 5UG&E5TED BV NATURAL riOTIVE3 'THE MOVEMENTIS UPWARD AMD OMWARD 



jCIT/'' 


""Ti" m 


M.n.-r„„.m 


OTTTUUSmH 


umiigujMj 


IHUIIllil 


Pill 


ipiiUliJ 


ujjiiniUiUUi^lJjd 1 1 iMjii| IIOTyilliU 


IpiuiujUH, 


KJ 


|/Z1 


rtf /fltl 


1/ -^7 


i—j| 


JtvJ 




M 






1 ; ^1 


Tjjs (^ 












^ 


Y |hOh^A^ 




!4W|J 


feSf 


w Hk 


{Hi 


\\ I 




k\| 




L_X 


1 P^^^vll 




it^ri 1 


ezJ^ 


-^ 


foil 


lUTTrrnTTTTTn 




frs^vlH 






W /S jk 




Q^k 


2s 



FIG- 2.06 • TWO VARIATIONS OF A CARVED TjESlGN W4TH A STRONG ONWARD FEELING 



Plate 3.') 



[105] 

ing has a glued on appearance it becomes mechanical and resembles a 
stamped or machine-produced ornament. 

A typical carved enrichment is carried through four steps: 
(1) the design is transferred to the wood surface by means of carbon Steps Taken 
paper; (2) the design is "set in" or separated from the ground by in Carving 
means of a grooved chisel: (3) the wood is cut away from the baek 
of the design by a process of grounding; (4) the leaves and flowers 
or other elements of the design are modeled. The designer should 
keep these processes in mind when developing his design. 

It is now essential to find the extent of the vocabulary possible 
for the designer of surface enrichment. lie has three large sources ^he 
of information: first, geometric forms and abstract spots; second. Designer's 
natural organic objects such as flowers, leaves, animals, etc.; third, Vocabulary- 
artificial objects, pots, jars, ink bottles, and other similar objects. 

lie may assemble or group these objects or elements for future 
designs into four typical systems: first, bands or borders; second, 
panels; third, free ornament; and fourth, the diaper or all-over 
patterns. 

Designing Bands on Borders 

Rule (id. Bands and borders should hare a consistent lateral, that is, 
onward movement. 

Rule (>c. Bands and borders should never have a prominent contrary 
motion, opposed to the main forward movement. 

Bands are particularly suitable for inlaying. They are composed Bands 
of straight lines arranged in some orderly and structurally related 
manner. They arc used for bordering, framing, enclosing, or con- 
necting. They give a decided onward motion which lends to increase 
the apparent length of the surface to which they are applied. Refer- 
ring to Plate 'W, Figure \ ( .H. we find t hree typical bauds. A, II, and ('. 
It is often the custom to limit the width of the inlayed bands to the 
width of the circular saw cut. To secure unity, the center band in 
V is wider than the outside Sections. 

A possible variation of motive in baud designing may be secured 
by accenting. The single band has been broken up at I) into geo- Accenting 
metric sections of pleasing length. But while I his design gives 
varietv, it also doslrovs the iinilv of a single straight line. I'm'tv 



106 



SUR.FA.CE. EHR.ICHMEMT OF SN\Al_L, PRII^ARX MABELS IN WOOD 
• APPLICATIOM OF BAvHD^S AMD BOKDEE5 - 
• 5"fM50L5^- POINT OF CONCENTRATION IN ENRICHMENT • 





FIG-203 GEomETKlC IHLAID SoeDEK. 
APPLIED TO THE. 5IQE. OF A BOX • 



COrVTKASTlHG v/it H INLAY 15 



FKS-207- TWO VARIATIONS OF INUVY 
FOK. e>OX COVEK ■ BOEDER. MOTIVE. 



FlG-213- A BOEDEE KE1PT2E5EK- 
TATlN'E. OF OOP CAJ^VINC?.- IT 
15 GEOMETE1C IN MOTIVE. AND 
MECHANICAL. IN APPEAKAHCE.' 




C0HTKA5TED VALUED R3K I II LAY 




FIG- 214- • A "Portion of 

A CARVED AMD MODELED FEAMI 




Plate 34 



107 



may, however, be restored by the addition of the top and bottom 
bands at E. This method of restoring unity is of extreme value in 
all border arrangements and is constantly used by the designer. 

Rule Gf. All component parts of a border should more in unison 
with the main movement of the border. 

Bands, as has just been stated, give distinctly "onward" move- 
ment. Borders are merely bands combined with other motives from Borders 
the designer's vocabulary. As will be seen, bands, by their onward 
movement, tend to hold the other elements of the 1 border together. 
Figure 193 is a border design without variety, unity, or interest. 
Figure 194 has added unitv to a similar border bv the addition of the 
double bands, but monotony is still present. Figure 19.5 suggests a 
method of relieving the monotony by accentuating every other repeat, 
thus supplying variety and creating an analogy to march-time music. 
Figure 190 has accentuated the monotonous border in Figure 194 
by omitting every other square. This makes a simple and effective 
inlay pattern and suggests a large number of possible variations that 
could be applied to accented band motives. 

Figures 197 and 198 are border motives of geometric derivation Moorish 
taken from the historic schools of ornament. Figure 198 illustrates Ornament 
the "strap ornament" of the Moorish school. The simple underlying 
geometric net upon which these designs are based may be found in 
Meyer's Handbook of Ornament. 

Inceptive Axes 

Rule Oh. Borders intended for vertical surfaces may have a strongly 
upward movement in addition to the lateral movement, provided the 
lateral moremad dominates. 

In addition to the purely onward borders we now come to a 
variety with a distinctly upward movement as well. While this new Tjn Wa rd and 
feature adds materially to the interest of the border, it also adds to Onward 
I lie difficulty of designing. The upward movement is often centered Borders 
about an axis termed the Axis of Symmetry or Inceptive 1 Axis, about 
which are grouped and balanced the different elements from the 
designer's vocabulary. When both sides arc alike, the unit so formed 
is called a bilateral unit. Figure 199 shows the formation of a bilateral 
unit by means of grouping, accenting, and balancing straight lines 



108 




Courtesy of Ilerkey and Gay 

Figure 215. — Inlaid Band Border 



over an inceptive axis. By adding bands above and below and dou- 
bling these vertical lines to gain width, we form at A and /i, Figure 199, 
inlaid designs with an upward and onward tendency or movement. 
The introduction of curved lines and natural units allows us to add 
more grace to these combined movements. The leading lines of a 
small border, designed to be seen at close range, are planned in 



101) 




Courtesy of Ilrrkey and Ga;/ 

Him.'KK 21G. — Single and Double Hand IiiIm'kI Border 



110 




Figure 216a. — Work of High School Students 



Courtesy of C. E. Partch 



Figure 200. The central line or inceptive axis is repeated at regular 
intervals and the leading or skeleton lines are balanced to the right 
and left of this axis. These leading lines, as can be readily seen, have 
an upward and onward movement. To insure continuity, a small 
link and the top and bottom bands have been added to complete 
the onward movement. 

Material for straight borders may be derived from geometry, 
nature, or artificial forms, but for borders designed in curves, nature 
is generally selected as a source. 

Figure 201 illustrates a crude and uninteresting form, un suited 
to outline enrichment". Figure 202 has brought Figure 201 into some 
semblance of order, but as can be readily seen by the primary outline 
which encloses it, the widest point occurs exactly midway from 
to]) to bottom, which makes the form monotonous. This defect has 
been remedied in Figure 203 and an interesting and varied area 
appears for the first time. What Dr. I Taney calls "the feebly flapping 
curve" of Figure 202 has been replaced by the vigorous and "snappy" 
curve of Figure 203, which gives what is termed a dynamic or rhyth- 
mic value in surface enrichment. 



[Ill] 




Courtesy of C. E. 1'artch 

Figcke 21Gb. — Work of High School Students 

Rule ttg. Each component part of a border should he strong'// 
dynamic and, if possible* partake of the main movements of the border. 

Any form which causes I ho eye to move in a given direction is 
strongly dynamic, and is opposed to the static form which does not 
cause a marked eye movement. A circle is symbolic of the static 
form, while a triangle is dynamic. In the designer's nomenclature 1 , 
the term "rhythmic" may be used synonymously with "dynamic." 

Dynamic areas or forms should carry out the upward and onward 
movement of the leading lines. Figure L 2()4 shows how closely 
dynamic areas are connected with nature's mills for design motive's. 
A slight change in the contour may transform a leaf into excellent 
material with which to clothe the leading lines. The curve of force, 
the cyma, and other curves described in previous chapters should 
be recognized by the designer and utilized in the contours of dynamic 
forms. 



[11*1 




Figure 21Gc. — Instruction Sheet Problem 



Courtesy of C. E. Partch 



The leading lines of the border in Figure L 200 are shown clothed 
or enriched in Figure 205. Vigorous dynamic spots, conventionalized 
from natural units, continue the upward and onward movement of 
the original leading lines. As will be noted, the background lias been 
treated to allow the spots to appear in relief. Small "fussy" spots or 
areas have been omitted and the units, varied in size and strongly 
dynamic in form, balance over an inceptive axis. The small link 
reaches out its helping hand to complete the onward movement 
without loss of unity, while the bands above and below bind the 
design together and assist in the lateral movement. Figure 205 
shows three methods of treatment: simple spots without modeling, 
from A to B\ slight indications of modeling, from B to C; full model- 
ing of the entire unit at C. The choice of treatment depends, of 
course, upon the skill of the craftsman. 



113] 




c c 

( burlrsy of llcrkcy and (my 

Kkuhi: ^17. Carved and Aeeented Border and Triple Carved Hand 

Figure c 20() shows a design varied from formal balance over a 
eenlral axis of symmetry oi* an inceptive axis. 1 1 has a decided 
onward niovemenl willi the leaves balanced above and below the 
stem which is the axis. The "repeal" has been reversed at l> and is 
more pleasing than the portion at A. The area of the background, 
in its relation to that used for ornamentation or "filling," cannot be 
predetermined with exactness. There should be no blank spaces 
for the eye to bridge. Some designers allow about one-third ground 



114 




o 
o 






[ 115] 

for two-thirds filling or enrichment. This proportion gives a full 
and rich effect and may be adopted in most instances as satisfactory. 

When a border is used to parallel a rectangle it is customary to 
strengthen the border at the corners for two reasons: first, to Point of 
strengthen, apparently, the structure at these points; second, to Concentration 
assist the eye in making the sudden turn at the corner. The corner —Effect upon 
enforcement affords momentary resting points for the eye, and adds 
pleasing variety to the long line of border. The strengthened 
point is called the point of concentration or point of force. Its presence 
and effect may be noted by the symbol P. C. in Figures 207, c 208, 
213, and 214. Chip 

Figure 213 represents the rather angular and monotonous chip Carving 
carving motive. It is, however, a simple form of carved enrichment 
for wood construction. Figure 214 shows the more rhythmic flow 
of a carved and modeled enrichment. Two methods of leaf treatment 
are given at A and />. 

Figures 215, 21(5, and 217 are industrial and public school examples 
of the forms of surface enrichment treated in this chapter. 



INSTRUCTION SHEET 

Plalo 3.3 .shows the necessary working drawings for wood inlay and is 
supplied as a typical high school problem by .Mr. C. E. Partch of Dcs Moines, 
Iowa. See Figure 310c. 



SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS 

(a) Draw the primary rectangle, appendage, etc. 

(b) Subdivide the rectangle into its horizontal and vertical subdivisions. 

(c) Design very simple contour enrichment. 

(d) Determine the location of zone of enrichment, and the amount and method 

of enriching the surface. 

(e) Make several preliminary sketches to determine the best design and add the 

one finally selected to the structure. Correlate with contour enrichment. 
(/) Add additional views, dimension, and otherwise prepare the drawing 
for shop use. 

SUGGESTED PROBLEM 

Design a walnut side table .'5 feet high and enrich with a double baud inlay 
of ebony. 



[116] 

SUMMARY OF RULES 

Rule 6a. Surfaces to be enriched must admit of enrichment. 

Rule (ib. Surface enrichment must be related to the structural contours but 
must not obscure the actual structure. 

Rule (ic. The treatment must be appropriate to the material. 

Rule (id. Bands and borders should have a consistent lateral, that is, onward 
movement. 

Rule Oe. Bands and. borders should never have a prominent contrary motion, 
opposed to the main forward movement. 

Rule (if. All component parts of a border should move in unison with the 
main movement of the border. 

Rule (ig. Each component part of a border should be strongly dynamic and, if 
possible, partake of the main movement of the border. 

Rule (ih. Borders intended for vertical surfaces may have a strongly upward 
movement in addition to the lateral movement, provided the lateral movement 
dominates. 

Rule (ii. Inlaycd enrichment should never form strong or glaring contrasts 
with the parent surface. 

Rule (ij. Carved surface enrichment should have the appearance of belonging 
to the parent mass. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. (live the reasons why surface enrichment may be used as decoration. 

2. State an original example illustrating when and where to use surface 

enrichment. 

3. Name an object from the industrial arts in which the structure has been 

weakened or obscured by the application of surface enrichment. Name 
an example of the correct use of surface enrichment and state wherein it has 
been correctly applied. 

•i. How should surface enrichment of small masses differ from that applied 
to larger masses; in what manner docs the fiber of the wood affect the 
design? 

5. Name three means of enriching the surface of wood. Briefly describe the 
proeesses of inlaying and carving, with the design restrictions govern- 
ing each. 

(i. Give three sources of ornament open to the designer of surface enrichment. 

7. Draw an accented triple band motive for inlay. 

8. What is the inceptive axis ; a bilateral unit? What are leading lines ; 

dynamic forms ; points of concentration? 

9. Design an upward and onward continuous carved border for wood and base it 

upon a vertical inceptive axis. Treat as in A. Figure 205. 
10. Illustrate the manner in which structure may be apparently strengthened 
by a band or border. 



Chapter X 

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES 

IN WOOD— Continued 

Enclosed and Free Ornament 

Chapter IX deall with methods of developing continuous or 
repeating ornament (bands or borders). This leaves enclosed and Enclosed 
free forms of surface enrichment to he considered in this chapter. Ornament 

As an enclosed form, a panel may be enriched by geometric, (Panels) 
natural, or artificial ornament. Il is enclosed in a definite boundary 
of bands or lines and may be a square or other polygon, circle, ellipse, 
lunette, spandrel, lozenge, or triangle. As I lie decoration does not 
have the continuous repealing movement of the border and as it 
covers an enclosed area, il is necessarily treated in a different manner 
from either band or border. Its object is to decorate a plane surface. 
The enrichment may be made by means of carving, inlaying, or 
painting. 

Free ornament means the use of motives not severely enclosed by 
bands or panels. Free ornament is generally applied lo centers or Free 
upper portions of surfaces lo relieve a monotonous area not suited to Ornament 
either panel or border treatment. 1 1 may have an upward or a 
radial movement dependent upon the character of the member lo 
be enriched. 

We then have three forms of possible surface enrichment : repeal- 
ing or continuous motives, enclosed motives, and free motives. Our Summary 
next point is to consider where the last two may be used appropriately 
in surface enrichment . 

The panel of a small primary mass of wood may be enriched at any 
one of three places: first, at tin 4 margins; second, at the center; 
third, over the entire surface. The exact position is a mailer to be 
determined by the structural design and the utilitarian requirements 
of the problem. For example, a bread board or laboret top would 

[ 1171 



118 



Zone of 
Enrichment 



Structural 
Reinforce- 
ment 



Marginal 

Zone 

Enrichment 



require the enrichment in the margin with the center left free. A 
table leg might require an enrichment in the center of the upper 
portion of the leg, while a square panel to be inserted in a door, 
Figure 233, Page 124, might require full surface treatment. 

Each area of panel enrichment should have one or more accented 
points known as points of concentration. The design should become 
more prominent at these places and cause the eve to rest for a moment 
before passing to the next point of prominence. The accented portion 
of the design at these points should be so related to the structure 
that it apparently reinforces the structure as a whole. Corners, 
centers of edges, and geometric centers are salient parts of a structure; 
we shall therefore be likely to find our points of concentration coin- 
ciding with them. Let us then consider the first of these arrange- 
ments as applied to enclosed enrichment. 

Marginal Panel Enrichment 
Enclosed Enrichment for Partly Enriched Surfaces 

Rule 7a. Marginal panel enrichment should parallel or be related 
to the outlines of the primary mass and to the panel it is to enrich. 

Rule 7b. Marginal points of concentration in panels should be 
placed (1) preferably at the corner or (2) in the center of each margin. 

Rule 7c. To insure unity of design in panels, the elements compos- 
ing the points of concentration and the links connecting them must be 
related to the panel contour and to each other. 

The marginal method of enrichment may be used when it is 
impossible to enrich the entire surface because the center is to be 
used for utilitarian purposes or because it would be aesthetically 
unwise to enrich the entire surface. The marginal zone is adapted 
to enriching box tops, stands, table tops, and similar surfaces designed 
preferably with the thought of being seen from above. We shall 
call such surfaces horizontal planes. 

As the design is to be limited to the margin, the panel outline is 
bound to parallel the contours, or outlines, of the surface to be 
enriched. It is well to begin the design by creating a panel parallel 
to the outlines of the enriched surface. Figure 218. The next step 
is to place the point of concentration in the marginal zone and within 
this figure. Common usage dictates the corners as the proper points. 



119 



It may be the designer's practice to use the single or double bands, 
Figures 2 IS, 219, 220, with a single accentuation at the corners. 
The spots composing the point of concentration must have unity 
with the enclosing contours and with the remainder of the enrichment. 
Figure 220 is, in this respect, an improvement over Figure 219. But 
these examples are not trite enclosed panel enrichment. They are 
the borders of Chapter IX acting as marginal enrichment. It is 
not until we reach Figure 221 that the true enclosed enrichment 
appears, when the panel motive is clearly evident. In this figure a 
single incised band parallels the contours of the figure until the corner 
is reached. Here we find it turning, gracefully widening to give 
variety, and supporting the structure by its own increased strength. 
The single band in Figure 221 acts as a bridge, leads the eye from one 
point of concentration to the next similar point, forms a compact 
mass with the point of concentration, and parallels the enclosing 
contours of the enriched surface. 

In Figure 222 the point of concentration is to be found in the 
center of each margin. This bilateral unit is clearly designed on and 
about the center lines of the square panel. These points of con- 
centration take the place of previous concentrations at the corners 
which were based upon the square's diagonals. While accenting 
based upon the center lines is acceptable, this means of concentration 
does not seem so successfully to relate the accented part to the 
structural outlines as that of concentration based upon the diagonals. 
The latter, therefore, is recommended for beginners. The corners 
of Figure 222 are, however, slightly accented by means of the bridg- 
ing spots .r-.r. 

The diagonals and center lines of the surface enriched squares 
of Figures 221 and 222 and similar structural lines are inceptive a.ves, 
as they are center lines for new design groups. It may then be said 
that a strong basic axis or similar line depending upon the structure, 
may become the center line or inceptive axis upon which to construct 
a bilateral design. It is only necessary to have this inceptive axis 
pass through the enrichment zone of the panel. Hereafter in the 
drawings, inceptive axes will be designated by the abbreviation 
I. A. while the point of concentration will be indicated by the abbre- 
viation P. 0. 



Points of 
Concentration 



Points of 
Concentration 
in the Corner 
of Margin 



Points of 
Concentration 
in the Center 
of Margin 



Inceptive 
Axes or 
Balancing 
Lines 



uo 



SURFACE EtlKlCHMErtT OF SMAkL. PRIIiARY MA55E5 IhWOOD ' 
•MAK.C-IMAL EHTSlCHr^EhT OF SQUARE. AEEA5 • 
•SYMBOLS: ^ "POIHT OF COHCEMTKATlOri;^ INCEPTIVE AXI5 • 
•TOOL FEOCE55ES' IftL-A-flHG AHD CARVING • 



YaT" 



^ 



I 



FIG- Z16 



BAMD MOTIVES SHOW- 
ING.? AT THE CORHETSS 

FIG ■ 2 IS • 




FIG," 22.0 



USED A5 
INCEPTIVE Ay!i 





DIAMETER USED 
AS INCEVnVE. 
ASIS- • 



FlG-ZZl 



■"£ IH 



COEttET2. 



FIG -222^. IH CEHTE? 




RG- 223 — FIG- 2.2.4-- 

CARVE.D MAReUMAL»EW2lCHMEHT LE^DINCS UtHES FOR FlG-223 



Plate 36 



[ HI ] 

The strongest plea for the inceptive axis is the fact that it inter- 
locks surface enrichment with the structure, insuring a degree of inceptive 
unity that might otherwise be unattainable. Axis 

The carved enrichment of Figure L 2 L 23 fully illustrates this point. 
The analytical study of Figure C 2 C 24 shows the diagonal used as an 
inceptive axis, with the leading lines grouped about it at the corner 
point of concentration. 



Free ExKiciniEXT 

Rule 8a. Free ornament for partly or fully enriched surfaces should 
be based and centered upon an inceptire a.vis of the structure. 

Rule 8b. Free ornament should be related and subordinated to the 
structural surfaces. 

Rule 8c. Points of concentration in free enrichment of rertieally 
placed masses are usually located in and around tlie inceptire axis and 
abore or below the geometric center of the design. 

This method of surface enrichment is used to relieve the 
design of heavy members in the structure or to distribute ornament Center 
over the surface of lighter parts in a piece of furniture. An Zone 
example is noted in Figure c 24(>. Page 1 L 28, where the upper portion of Enrichment 
the legs has center enrichment. As can be readily seen, the enrich- 
ment is generally free in character with little or no indication of 
enclosure. Figure L Z L 25 shows the application of free enrichment to a 
paneled screen or hinged door. The I\ C. is in the upper portion of 
the door and is re-echoed in the door frames, while the ornament itself 
is strongly dynamic in movement with a decided upward tendency in 
sympathy with the proportions of the door. This motive might be 
developed by inlay, carving, or paint. 

Figure c 2 c 2(i is a carved Gothic leaf, appropriately used as enrich- 
ment of heavy furniture. The unit may be raised above the surface 
or, even more easily, depressed or incised into the surface. The small 
corner spot is added with the intention of bringing the leaf into 
sympathetic conformity with the contours. Note how the center 
line of both units in Figures ^li) and ^(i coincides with the inceptive 
axis of the structure. Let it again be reiterated that this binding 
of the surface enrichment to the structure bv menus of the coincidence 



[is*] 



SURFACE. EMRICHME.NT OF 5MALL PRIMARY MASSES IM WOOD 
•FREE. CEMTER EMR.lCHriE.HT FOR VERTICAL. AREA»S • 
•TOOL. PROCESSED*. INLA > YING,LOW~EE_Ll£F CARVING • 



fii'ii 



8ct 

I., 




FIG- 2.-2£> -FURNlTUREDETML 
LOW RELIEF GOTHIC CARVING: 



FIG -225 — 

IHLAlD- PAIMTED- CARVED 




FIG -22. 7- PAPER CUTTER • INCITED DECORATION- 

I? 



CCce. rit: . 




•s-fa 



LL 



FIG- 229- PIERCED EriKICHT^EMT • 



f\& ■ E2.e • Book, stall • 

LOW REUEF CURVING • 

FREE AMD I S/ \ARGIM AL EflKICHfiEMT- 




Q~b O) 



FIG • 230 • OH RELATED PIERCED 
ENRICHMENT- 



Plate 37 



123 



of the axes of symmetry and the inceptive axes causes the most 
positive kind of unity. Xo part of this form of enrichment should 
be carved sufficiently high to give it the appearance of being separated 
from the main surface. 

Figures 227 and 228 are additional examples of free enrichment. 
Figure 228 has introduced by its monogram the individual touch 
of ownership so essential to the success of school designing. The 
monogram represents free enrichment while the border is marginal 
decoration with the point of concentration in the center of the top 
edge. Both types of enrichment are related to each other and to the 
structural contours. 

Figure 229 is typical free pierced enrichment. The wood in the 
enriched portion is removed and the resulting figure supplies added 
lightness of construction and variety to the surface. One encounters 
this form of enrichment in the average school project with greater 
frequency than either inlaying or carving. It is with the thought of 
adding to the possibilities of school project decoration that the latter 
forms have been introduced. A word regarding the errors often 
encountered in pierced enrichment of the diameter of Figure 229 may 
not be amiss. Pupils, believing the square to be the last word in this 
form of enrichment, place the figure on the member to be enriched 
with little thought of its possible relation to the structural contours; 
the result is the un-unified design illustrated in Figure 230. To 
correct this, reference should be made lo Rule 1 8b. 



Examples 
of Free 
Enrichment 



Pierced 

Free 

Enrichment 



Errors in 
the Use of 
Pierced 
Enrichment 



Full Panel Exhichmkxt 

Rule 7d. The contours- of fully enriched panels should parallel the 
outlines of the primary mass and repeat its proportions. 

This is the riches) and most elaborate form of enrichment when 
carried lo its full perfection. It generally takes the form of a panel Full Surface 
filled with appropriate design material. This panel may be used lo Enrichment 
enrich the plain end of a project such as a book stall and thus cover 
the entire surface, or il may be inserted into a large primary mass 
and accentuate its center as in a door, in a manner similar lo Figure 
2'J,'J. lis use, whatever its position, leads us lo the consideration 
of methods of designing full panels. 



124 



5UK.FACE. EMKlCHnEriT OF SMALL PEIMARY HAS5E5 IM WOOD • 
• ENCLOSED E.HRICHME-MT: 5QUAKE AMD EECTAH G U Lj\K. 
PAH ELS— TOOL P£OCE55ES - CAKVlHC-i . IMLA^iNG. • 



- ;- 




FIG.- 2.31 FIG.-&3& 

£ IM COKMER. "^ IM CEMTER 




r i 





FIC-.-Z.54-- 
DATA- 



FIG -235- APPL1- 
OATION OF DATA- 




FIC-.E33 

APPLICATION QF FIG5 231^- 





t£P 



FIG £37- FIG- 236- 



t 



at 



FIG- £39 



FIGURES 2.35 AMD S4-0 AKE ^ECOM- 
ME.NDED T^PES FO^ BEGIN N EKS • FIGS 
£37 TO 239 PEPK-E5EMT THE: DEVEL- 
OPMEMTOF A ■SIMPLE UHIT- 




FIG. • 2-4-0' 



FvC-i- 23<S- 



Plate 38 



[ Ho ] 

Rule 7e. The points of concentration for a fully enriched square 
panel may be in its center or in its outer margin. 

In planning designs for full panels, it would be well to consider: Square 
first, square panels; second, rectangular panels; third, varied panels. Panels 
The point of concentration may be kept in the comers of a square 
panel, as designed in Figure 231, or it may be placed in the center, 
as shown in Figure 232. The effects, when assembled, are indicated 
in Figure 233. 

To secure these effects, a square panel is commonly divided into 
quarter sections by center lines. The diagonals of each quarter should 
be drawn before proceeding with the details of the design. These 
diagonals and center lines are the building lines or leading axes of 
the pattern. The leading lines and details are then grouped around 
these center and diagonal axes in a manner quite similar to the method 
used in Figures 223 and 224. These leading lines are then clothed with 
enrichment by applying the processes indicated in Chapter IX. 

Without going into detail we may say that it is good practice: 
first, to draw the square panel; second, to draw the center lines and Steps in 
diagonals; third, to locate points of concentration; fourth, to make Panel 
the leading lines move inwardly to center concentration or outwardly Designing 
to corner concentration; fifth, to clothe these lines with ornament 
having strongly dynamic movement corresponding to the leading 
lines; sixth, to fill in remaining space with ornament, supporting 
the movement toward points of concentration, even though slight 
and minor contrasts of direction an 1 added to give variety. When 
the entire design is completed one should ask the following questions: 
Does the design have unity? Does it seem too thin and spindling? 
And most of all, do the points of concentration and shape of the 
panel fit the structural outlines and proportions? We cannot fit 
a square peg into a round hole; neither can we fit a square panel 
into a circular or rectangular mass without considerable change 4 
to the panel. 

Figures 234 and 23.*> have been drawn with the idea of suggesting 
a simple and modified form of panel enrichment which may be readily 
handled by the beginner. The tree as a decorative symbol is appro- 
priate to wood, and its adaption to a square panel is drawn at 
Figure 23;>. 



120 



SURFACE EDSICHMEHT OF 5MALL "PRIMARY MAS5E.5 IM WOOD 

• ENCLOSED PANEL ENRICHMENT — FORMAL AND FREE. BALANCE. • 

• APPLICATION OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL 
MOTIVES • 



MOTE THE 
5ICiMIFICAttT 
USE OF THE 
INicfecrrn-E 

AHD FEATHER 
PEN F015EM- 
RTICHIM& A 
LETTER 

RACK.- 




P4-? 



• FIG- 241- LETTER RACK.- FORMAL BALANCE 




FIG 242- BOOK. 5TALLFORMAL &ALAMCEL- 
Fl_/VT AMD nODELED TR£ATMENT. 



-D0I-1INAMT •- 



1 1 1 1*1 





FIG- 24-3- BRACKET SHOW- 
ING MARGINAL AND PANEL. 
TrrPEs • 



)||IJJJ|mijmHlHlii'iiim 




m, •+ 


II 



FIG- 2.4+- TRIPTYCH FREE BALANCE. 
THREE. VERTICAL DIVISIONS. 



FIG-245- BOOILLOn CUPFE.EE. 
BALANCE MOTIVE FOR RECTAN- 
GULAR. SERVING TKAV 



Plate 3!) 



[127 ] 

While a rectangular panel may be divided into sections by a Rectangular 
number of different methods, it is well for the beginner in design to Panels 
treat it as a vertical mass, designed to enrich a vertical surface. 
This vertical panel may then be divided into halves by the axis of 
symmetry, which should coincide with an inceptive axis, but it is not 
essential to balance the enrichment exactly in each half. Small 
deviations from exact symmetry sometimes give added variety to the 
design. Figure 23.5. 

Rule 7f. The point* of concentration for a fully enriched vertical 
panel should be in the upper portion of the panel. 

The point of concentration in vertical panels should be in the 
upper portion, and all parts of the design, both leading lines and Vertical 
clothing, should have a strong upward tendency. Figure 23(> is a Panels 
vertical panel from historic ornament. The heavier parts have been 
designed at the bottom for stability and the lighter and more intricate 
members have been placed at the top. 

Rule 7g. The fully enriched panel and its contents should be 
designed in unified relation to the structural outlines, with the center line 
of the panel coinciding with the inceptive axis of the structure. 

To see how to apply rectangular panels to wood surfaces, let us 
look at Figure 240. This is a simple design with an incised back- 
ground and might be used for enriching a narrow paneled door, 
newel post, or frame. The large 1 areas are at the bottom; the point 
of concentration is at the top, and the entire design balances over 
the inceptive axis. The point of concentration consists of the geo- 
metrically treated small flower form, with its original lines modified 
to simplify the carving processes. The stem coincides wit li the 
inceptive axis, while narrow and sympathetically related minor 
panels fill in the background and keep the design from appearing 
weak and thin. 

Figure 237 is an accurate rendering of the flower form and is the 
data or record of facts for Figure 240. Figure 238 introduces the Adapting 
method of plotting the areas from these facts. Variety of form and Data to 
area is, at this stage, desirable. Figure 23!) has assembled these areas Material 
into orderly balance over the axis of symmetry. Figure 240 has again 
slightly modified them to apply to the vertical panel in wood. 



[ WS ] 




Courtesy of Derkcy and Gay 

Figure 240. — Example of Free and Marginal Enrichment 



[ i*o ] 

Varied Panels 

The panels under consideration up to this time have been designed 
to harmonize with square and rectangular contours. The panel Panels of 
may, however, become a most flexible and sympathetic element, Varied 
changing its form to suit the ever-changing contours. But though Shapes 
change of shape affects the contents of the panel to a certain extent 
the points of concentration and the inceptive axes still act as our 
guide. Objects are arranged formally on each side of the inceptive 
axes and the space filling is approximately the same as in former 
examples. 

The still life sketches of the art class may be conventionalized 
into appropriate motives for utilitarian objects as shown in Figure u se f 
241. This use of still life suggests a most desirable correlation and a Artificial 
welcome one to many drawing teachers. Three points should be Objects 
kept in mind: first, adaptability of the object, its decorative possi- 
bilities, and appropriateness to service; second, adjustment of the 
panel to contours; third, adjustment of the object to the wood panel. 

Some portion of the object should be designed to parallel the panel. 
Small additional spots may assist in promoting harmony between 
the object and the panel boundary. These three considerations are 
essentially necessary factors in the design of enclosed enrichment. 
Figures 242 and 243 are other adaptations of panel design to varied 
contours. 

In the foregoing examples the designs are more or less rigidly 
balanced over the inceptive axis or axis of symmetry. Imaginary Free 
axis it is, but, acting with the panel, it nevertheless arbitrarily limits Balance 
the position of all parts within the panel. By removing this sem- 
blance of formal balance, we approach what is termed free balance. 
In this we find that the designer attempts to balance objects 
informally over the geometric center of the panel or combined panels. 
As the arrow points in Figure 244 indicate, I he problem is to balance 
the trees in an informal and irregular manner, avoiding "picket 
fence"' regularity. In all of this freedom there is a sense of order, 
since a mass of trees on one side of the geometric center is balanced 
by a similar mass on the other side. Indeed, in Figure 244 this may 
be carried even to the point of duplicating in reverse order the outside 
panels of the Triptych. 



130 



•KULES 7DTOTE- EMCLOSE.D SURFACE Eti^lCHMEHT WITH 
APPLICATION OF STILL LIFE TO A FULLY EftRICHED SURFACE. • 

• IHSTT2UCTIOM SHEET • 




ink: pot 





FICtA- STILL LIFE 6K00P 



BOOK! 



FICt-B- STILL LIFE" C-iBOUP ANALYZED 
AHD E.CSOLVED INTO DESIGN 
ELCHENTS ADAPTED TO MATERIAL • 




FIG C- ADAPTATION TO STAINED FIG ■ D • ADDITIONAL DATA 

surface EneiciinenT of. a - supplied foe constructive. 

BOOK. STALL- PURPOSES- 



Plate 40 



[131] 

Figure 245 again reverts to artificial motives, illustrated in free 
balance. The jet of steam is the unifying factor which brings the 
cup into harmony with the enclosing space. Figure 24G shows 
illustrations of free balance and border enrichment from the industrial 
market. 

INSTRUCTION SHEET 

Plate 40 indicates the necessary design steps for a panel surface enrichment 
correlating with still life drawing. Note the connection between the ink bottle, 
pen, and book us used to decorate a book stall. 

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS 

For Square Panel Surface Enrichment 

(a) Draw the primary rectangle of the principal surface, appendages, etc. 
(6) Subdivide into major vertical and horizontal divisions. 

(r) Design simple contour enrichment. Determine location of zone of enrich- 
ment (the panel), the amount and method of enriching the surface. 
((/) Draw outline of the panel which should be sympathetically related to 

the contours. 
(e) Draw diameters, diagonals, or center lines of the panel. Regard these as 

possible inceptive axes. 
(/) Locate points of concentration on either diameters, diagonals, or center 

lines. 
(g) Draw leading lines in sympathy with the contours of the panel, the inceptive 

axis, and the point of concentration. 
(/*) Clothe the leading lines with enrichment that shall be appropriate to the 

structure, the material, and the intended service. Note the result. 

Is the panel agreeably filled without appearing overcrowded or meager? 

Several preliminary sketches should be made. 
(0 Add additional views, dimension, and otherwise prepare the drawing for 

shop use. 

SUGGESTED PROBLEM 

Design a glove box and enrich the cover with a simple carved panel with 
marginal panel enrichment. 

SUMMARY OF RILES 
Enclosed Surface Enrichment fhu Partly Enriched Panels 

Rule 7a. Marginal panel enrichment should parallel or be related to the 
outlines of the primary mass, and to the panel it is to enrich. 

Rule 7b. Marginal points of concentration in panels shoulil be placed (1) 
preferably at the corners or (J) in the center of each margin. 

Rule ~c. To insure unity of design in panels, the elements composing the 
points of concentration and the links connecting them must be related to the panel 
contour and to each other. 



[ 13* ] 

Enclosed Surface Enrichment for Fully Enriched Panels 

Rule 7d. The contours of fully enriched panels should parallel the outlines 
of the primary mass and repeat its proportions. 

Rule 7c. The points of concentration for a f idly enriched square panel may be 
in its center or in its outer margin. 

Rule 7f. The points of concentration for a fully enriched vertical panel should 
be in the upper portion of the panel. 

Rule 7g. The fully enriched panel and its contents should be designed in 
unified relation to the structural outlines, with the center line of the panel coinciding 
with the inceptive axis of the structure. 



Eree Surface Enrichment 

Rule Sa. Free ornament for partly or fully enriched surfaces should be 
based and centered upon an inceptive axis of the structure. 

Rule 81). Free ornament should be related and subordinated to the structural 
surfaces. 

Rule 8c. Points of concentration in free enrichment of vertically placed 
masses are usually located in and around the inceptive axis and above or below the 
geometric center of the design. 

Postulate: Surface enrichment should be inseparably linked to the surface 
and to the outlines or contours. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. What is a panel? 

2. State three sections or areas at which a panel may he enriehed. Give reasons 

for selecting a given area. 

3. Explain relation of point of concentration to each section. 

4. In marginal enrichment, is it preferahle to locate the point of concentration 

in the center or corner of the margin? Why? 

5. What is the value of an inceptive axis with relation to the unity of a design? 

What is its relation to the structure? 
G. Give the characteristics and use of free enrichment. 

7. State the use of full panel enrichment. 

8. Where may the point of concentration he located in full square panel 

enrichment? 

9. Name six steps essential to the designing of a square panel. 

10. For what specific purpose is a vertical rectangular panel adapted? 

11. Where should the point of concentration he located in a vertical rectangular 

panel? 

12. Draw a flower form and adapt it to a carved enrichment in wood. 

13. To what uses are panels of varied shapes adapted? 

14. How may artificial objects he adapted to surface enrichment? 

15. Explain the term "free balance." 



Chapter XI 

SURFACE ENRICHMENT WITH MINOR SUBDIVISIONS 
OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD 

This article is, in part, a brief summary and review of Rules 
2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 3c (vertical and horizontal major divisions) with Minor 
application to minor subdivisions. By minor spacings or sub- Subdivisions 
divisions in wood work we refer to the areas occupied by drawers, 
doors, shelves, and other small parts subordinated in size to the large 
or major divisions such as large front or side panels, etc. These 
smaller or minor subdivisions in wood work are bounded by runners, 
rails, guides, and stiles depending upon the form of construction and 
character of the minor subdivision. Major divisions are often 
bounded by legs, table tops, and principal rails. 

It is an interesting and useful fact that rules governing major 
divisions generally apply equally well to minor ones. There are a 
few exceptions and additions to be noted in their appropriate places. 

When minor subdivisions are well planned they supply one of 
the most interesting forms of surface enrichment or treatment, for 
if we consider paneling an appropriate form of decoration, we are 
equally privileged to feel that each small drawer or door adds its 
quota of interest to the sum total of the entire mass. We are equally 
justified in accenting these drawers or doors with panel decoration 
or other forms of surface enrichment provided that harmony is 
maintained. 

These minor subdivisions, properly enriched, may become equal- 
izers, or elements which adjust the design to the character of the 
surroundings destined to receive the project of which they are a part. 

With reference to the illustrations. Figure 247, Plate 41, shows a .. i . , 

' ,. Vertical 

simple minor panel treatment tailing under Rule 3a. Single or Sections and 

preferably double band inlay might have been suitably substituted Their 

for the sunken panels. As many craftsmen are not properly equipped Divisions 

f ml 



134 



Surface E>richmemt amd Minor. "Space. Divisions 

FORLLA12.GE: PRJhAAl^V MA55E5 IIS WOOD • • • 
• ACCE.t-iTUA.TION QF HlMOR-VEETlCAuDlVI5IOH5 - 



:a*** &: *is3e' 



.J* 




FIS-Z4-1* TWO VERTICAL 
AMD EQUAL DIVI510MS- 5A- 







FlG • 24-e> • THRE.EL MlHOfS. YEE- 
T1CAL DIVISIONS • 3E» • 




FIG- 24-9- THREE VERTICAL 
DIVISIONS • 5B" HlNOJe. 2>A^ 




F1&-Z50- THtEE VEETICAU 
n>lvi£>lOHS • 3B- MINOfcJ. • 2.A 




FIG.- 251 -TH12.EE. VQ2TICAL 

DlVlSIQHS (WITHOUT KEPETlTlCrt 

1M \PPEM0AGE)-4-A- M1NORL-2.A 



FIG- 25Z-THKEE Vertical Dtvis ion-5 
REPEATED \H APPENDAGE. • 4c- 



Plate 41 



135 



to produce inlays, it is practicable to use stock inlays, thus simplifying 
the process. 

In a three-part design it is the designer's desire to gain the effect 
of lightness and height by the use of Rule 3b. As a simple treatment 
of a three-part design, Figure 248 needs little comment. Figures 
249 and 250 are examples of dividing, by means of minor divisions, 
the outer sections of a three-part design. 

The small drawers in the right and left sections of Figure 250 
might have been improved in proportion by again applying Rule 2a 
to their design, thereby varying the measure of their heights. The 
enclosed panel enrichment affords pleasing variety to the otherwise 
unvaried front panels. Rule 7g. 

Figures 251 and 252 show unbroken drawer runners continuing 
through all three vertical sections, thus definitely binding these 
sections together. It is seen that this device is conducive to unity, 
whenever two or three vertical divisions have been used. 

Figure 252 is a repetition of Figure 251, but shows the echo or 
continuation of the three divisions of the primary mass into the 
appendage. The use of the single or double band enrichment still 
further binds the minor subdivisions of the primary mass into ideal 
unity with the appendage. 



Minor Sub- 
divisions of 
Three Verti- 
cal Major 
Parts or 
Divisions 



Unbroken 

Vertical 

Divisions 



Sequential Progression of Minor Horizontal Space Divisions 

Rule 2c. A primary mass may be divided into three or more smaller 
horizontal masses or sections by placing the larger mass or masses at the 
bottom and by sequentially reducing the height measure of each mass 
toward the smaller division or divisions to be located at the top of the mass. 

Rule 2c. Let us now imagine the center section of a three-part 
design to be removed and extended upward. Its transformation 
by this process into a cabinet or chiffonier similar to Figure 253, 
Plate 42, introduces the new principle of sequential progression. 
Instead of adhering to the limitation of Rules 2a and 2b, this arrange- 
ment shows that the horizontal divisions may be gradually decreased 
in height from the bottom toward the top of the primary mass. By 
this rhvthmic decrease in the measure of the height, the eve is led 



Sequential 
Arrangement 
of Minor 
Horizontal 
Divisions 



136 



5L>eB\cE EMi?lCHMEMT AMD MIMOR 5 PACE DIVISIONS FOR. 

\J\RjGE. PRIMAseV MASSES IM WOOD 

5EQUEMTIAL A^EaNGEMEMT OF MlliORL HO^rZLONTAL. DIVISIONS 1H OHEOK 
ThKF_F_ VERTICAL. D1VI5IOHS 





F1G-254-WTSOHG 
MOVEMENT OF 
5EQGENCE : R.EVEPSE. 

THIS PLATE AMD MOTE FIG -255- UPPER. MEMBER. 
THE 1MPJ20VEMEMT- OF SEQUENCE DIVIDED BV 
KULE3B- 



FIG-256- 5EQUE.MCE. APPLIED 
TO CENTER. MthBEK OFTH^EE 
VERTICAL DIVISIONS- 




FIG - 25S • THI2E.H. VERTICAL- 
DIVISIONS ECHOED IN THE APPEM DACE. 



Plate 42 



[187 



through an orderly gradation through lesser areas to the top, thus 
giving a pleasing sensation of lightness and variety to the structure. 
By this method, also, the large areas are retained at the bottom to 
give stability and solidity to the structure. A quick test of these 
conditions may be made by reversing Figure 254, thus producing a 
more decidedly pleasing effect. 

This orderly gradation or sequence of heights need not be carried 
out with absolute mathematical precision such as 7-()-5-4-3- L 2-l. 
Arrangements similar to the following progression make for equally 
pleasing and more varied effect: 9j-8-0f-0-.3-4f . Many design- 
ers repeat similar heights for two neighboring horizontal spaces as, 
()-5-5-4f, but the upward gradation should be apparent. Figure 
<255, an Austrian motive, shows a strongly marked sequence with the 
top division broken by Rule 3b. It is better practice to keep such 
attempts confined to the bottom or top members of the sequence 
or loss of unity may be the final result. 

By applying this principle to the center section of a three-part 
design, we now have illustrated in Figure c 2.*>() the new sequence in 
its application, and Figures L 257 and L 25S are variations of the 
same idea. 

We now come to the transitional type of design where three 
vertical sections begin to lose their dominance as major divisions, but 
still retain their places in the design as minor sections. Replacing 
these in prominence is the horizontal major section or division. The 
first immediate result of this change as shown in Plate 43 is to produce 
a more compact surface with a greater impression of length because 
of the presence of strongly accented horizontal lines which are always 
associated with horizontal divisions. This transitional style with its 
minor but dominant horizontal divisions would harmonize with the 
long horizontal lines of a room or similar lines in the furniture. The 
full expression of this style or type will be readily seen by comparing 
Plates 43 and Figures 2;>1 and 2.>2. Plate 41. Several styles of 
period furniture have been introduced in Plate 43 to prove the 
universality of these principles of space divisions. 

Figures L lo\), L 2(>0, and c 2(> c 2. Plate 43, are divided by three minor 
vertical sections cut by two minor horizontal divisions with the domi- 
nance in the lower section. Pule L 2a. The arrangement of the' small 



Sequential 
Arrange- 
ments — 

(Continued) 



Two 

Horizontal 
and Three 
Vertical 
Divisions 



138 



SURFACE. ENK1CHMEH.T AMD MINOR. 5UB D\V15iOM5 
FOR L^GE PKIMARV M/V55E5 INWOOO • 
THREE VERTICAL OWt 51 OH 5 CROSSED BV TWO HOKIZOMTAL DIVISIONS 

mm 





Fl<& • 263 • THI 5 5EQUEMTI AL 
PLAN OF THE .SMALL CEMTER 
DRAWEE WOULD HAVE IHCEEASED 
THE 1HTERE5TIN FIGURES 

259 TO Z/S2.- 



HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS (PLATE44 ) 
HOTE PAHEt EHK.ICHriE.r-lT WITH £ 
IH CENTER. - 




TlAL PLAN FOR. 
TWO DRAWERS 



Plate 43 



139 



central drawers could have been more varied by the application of 
the principle of sequential progression. Figures 261 and 203 show 
similar vertical spacings with a difference in the arrangements of the 
horizontal divisions. In these figures the dominance has been placed 
in the vpper section of the primary mass by the division created by the 
runner above the lower drawer. It is likewise seen that Figure 203 
needs a top appendage to bind the top into closer unity with minor 
spacings. 

In carrying the transitional type to which we have referred in 
the previous paragraphs from the vertical space influence toward 
the horizontal, we are gradually approaching three minor horizontal 
divisions, still maintaining three minor vertical divisions in a modified 
and less prominent form. Figure 204 is an approach toward three 
horizontal divisions. As only one clear-cut horizontal space division 
is visible, this figure is not a pure example. The upper horizontal 
space division is broken up into a three-part design by the drawer 
guides. It is not until we reach Figure 200 that three horizontal 
divisions are clearly evident. 



Dominance 
of Lower or 
Upper 
Sections 



Transitional 
Types 



Horizontal Divisions 

The horizontal minor divisions in furniture are generally drawer 
runners and the vertical minor divisions are often drawer guides. 
The horizontal divisions may be arranged in either one of two ways: 
first, by the application of Rule 2b; or second, by applying Rule 2c, 
the rule of sequential progression. Figures 200, 2(57, and 208, 
Plate 44, are representative of the former while Figures 209 and 270 
are typical of the latter. The result in either case is a compactly 
designed and solid mass of simple structural lines. On some occasions 
we find the three-part rule used for minor divisions within the hori- 
zontal sections, while again the two-part rule is used. The method 
depends upon the desired use and appearance. In either case the 
long areas and large masses are to be retained as far as possible 
near the bottom of each primary mass, as this custom lends to give 
a sense of solidity to the design. 

Figure 271 is a rare reversion to more than three vertical divisions. 
In this case, Rule 3c has been observed and we find all of the panels 



Three Minor 
Horizontal 
Divisions Cut 
by Varying 
Numbers of 
Vertical 
Divisions 



Four 

Vertical 

Divisions 



140 



• 5U^FACE EHR1CHMEHT AND MIHOi^ SUb DIVISIONS 
T=OKL LA^SE. P>EL)MA^V M^OOE5 IN WOOD' 
•ACCENTED HORIZONTAL DIVISION 5 (THEEE) CUT E>V VERTICAL D)V\5IQHS 




F"l& • Z7I (COLONIAL") 
I^OLES 2.B AMD 3C 



Plate 44 



141 



are of equal size. Variety lias been secured by means of the 
horizontal spacings. 

Free Balance 

This form of design is inherent in the Japanese system. It con- 
sists in the planning and balancing of unequal areas over a geometric 
center. It is not subject to definite rules as is the more formal 
balancing. The reader is referred to Mr. Arthur Dow's excellent 
book on Composition for further discussion of the subject. Figure 
272, Plate 45, is an example of partly formal and partly free balance 
and its method of treatment. 

Figures 273 and 274 are pierced designs, thoroughly related to the 
structure and in no way weakening it. Figure 273 is representative 
of a type which, if carried to extremes, will cause the structure to 
become too weak for service; it is, therefore, necessary to guard and 
restrict this form of enrichment. The carving of Figure 275, com- 
bined with the contour enrichment, forms a pleasing variation to this 
common type of furniture design. 

Small minor details in furniture construction should be designed 
with as much care as the larger major or minor parts. The larger 
areas or spaces in small details similar to stationery shelves and pigeon 
holes must harmonize in proportion with the space in which they are 
placed and of which they arc a part. 

The three-part or three-vertical division system, Hide 3b, is 
generally used to design the small details in furniture as may be seen 
in Figures 276, 277, 278, and 279; while the rule of sequence. Rule 2c, 
may be employed again to subdivide these small details in a horizon- 
tal direction with as much variety as is consistent with unity. Figure 
280 is a leaded glass surface enrichment for doors. Note the leading 
lines of the enrichment as they parallel the dominant proportions 
of the panel opening. 



Free Minor 

Space 

Treatment 

Free 
Balance 



Carving 
and Piercing 
as Applied to 
Large Masses 



Small Minor 
Details of 
Large Pri- 
mary Masses 



IXSTIU'CTION SHKKT 

Plate Hi is a typical high school sheet of design problem*, with the masses 
accentuated by pen shading. See Plate 15. 



Sr.M.MAKY OP DKSICN STPPS 
(«) to (e). See similar steps in Chapter I\. 



[142] 



• SURFACE EMR1CHMEMT AMD r^llhOR. 5U& DIVISIOMS 
FOR LARGE PR I MAR V HA55E5 IN WOOD * 
•FKEE. MIMOR 5PAC1MG.5 • APPENDAGES • PIERCED AMD CARVED EM^ICHMENT 




FIG 277- MINOR. SPACING 
T2UL.E. 3 B " 



FIG- 2.QO 



FIG- Z7S- 
"SULE.5 3?>- C • ETC 



Plate 4.5 



[ 143 ] 
SUGGESTED PROBLEM 

Design a sideboard 3 feet 3 inches high with plate rack. The primary mass 
should have three minor horizontal divisions and three minor vertieal divisions, 
with the horizontal divisions accented. 

SUMMARY OF RULES 

Sequential Progression of Minor Horizontal Space Divisions 

Rule 2c. A primary mass may be divided into three or more smaller 
horizontal masses or sectiotis by placing the larger mass or masses at (he bottom and 
by sequentially reducing the height, measure of each ??iuss toward the smaller divi- 
sion or divisions to be located at the top of the mass. 

REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. What are minor subdivisions in wood construction? 

2. What is the effect of a design with dominant vertical major divisions? 

State its use. 

3. Show some customary methods of dividing three vertical major divisions 

into minor subdivisions. 
■i. State the rule of sequential progression. Give illustrations from the 

industrial arts. 
5. Describe the transitional stage between the point where the dominance of 

the vertical motive ceases and the horizontal influence begins. 
0. What is the effect of a design with dominant horizontal major divisions? 

State its use. 

7. Show some customary methods of subdividing horizontal major divisions 

into minor subdivisions. 

8. What should be the relation in a design between the details of a project and 

the divisions of the primary mass? 



IU\ 




Chapter XII 



SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF CLAY 

In some respects the surface enrichment of clav is similar to T . .. .. 

i e i i? ii--i- i'ii-i • Limitations 

that ot wood as, tor example, the similarity produced by inlays in for Surface 

clay and in wood. On the other hand the enrichment of clay is Enrichment 
unhampered by the restricting- effects of unequal resistance of the 
material, such as the grain of wood. Again it in limited to those 
effects or forms of enrichment thai are capable of withstanding the 
intense heat to which ceramic decoration is subjected. See Frontis- 
piece. 



Pi 1 




1 H Ww\ 

II 1 *^ IB 


&S M 


■ ^^^^^■0 


1 ^itffl 


H 1 M 




I^HBJH 



Courtesy af the Rookwood Potteries 

FioniiK C -\SI. — Filling llic Saggars bct'oiv Firing 



Before proceeding with a design it is well for one to understand 

clenrlv the possibilities of clav enrichment. He must know what _ 

' . .' , .. , Decorative 

kind ot designs are best suited to clay as a medium, to tin' intended p rocesse s of 

service, and to I lie ultimate applies I ion of t lie heal of the pottery kiln. Surface 

AVilhoul entering into technicalities let us briefly discuss the follow- Enrichment 

I i w I 



14G 




Figure 282. — Stacking the Kiln 



Courtesy The Rookwood Potteries 



[147] 

ing processes. The first three deal with finger and tool manipulation Forms of 
of the clay body and are consequently the simpler of the processes. Manipulation 
The last five are concerned chiefly with the addition of coloring 
pigments either to the clay or to the glaze and are, therefore, more 
complex in character. 

Processes 

Rule 9a. Surface enrichment of clay must be so designed as to be 
able to withstand the action of heat to which all ware must be submitted. 

Rule 9b. Incised, pierced, and modeled decoration in clay should 
be simple and bold and thus adapted to the character of the material. 

1. This is the simplest form of enrichment, a process familiar 

to the earliest primitive potters and appropriate now for beginners. Incising 
It consists of the process of lowering lines or planes into the clay body 
to the depth of from one-sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch. These 
lines or planes should be bold and broad. They may be made with 
a blunt pencil or a flat pointed stick. A square, rectangular, or 
round stick may be used as a stamp with which to form a pattern for 
incising. Illustrations of simple incising may be found in Figures 
283, 284, 295, 319, 330. The tiles shown are about six inches square. 

2. This process is less common and, as its name implies, is carried 

out by cutting through the clay. It may be done with a fine wire. Piercing 
Either the background or the design itself may be thus removed. 
The effect produced is that of lightening an object such as the top 
of a hanging flower holder, a window flower box. or a lantern shade. 

3. By adding clay to the main body, and by working this clay 

into low relief flower or geometric forms, one has the basic process of Modeling 
modeling. The slightly raised areas of clay form a pleasing play 
of light and shade that varies the otherwise plain surface of the ware. 
The process should be used with caution, for over-modeling. Figure 
325, will obstruct the structural outlines and, because of its over 
prominence as decoration, will cease to be surface enrichment. 'In 
the technical language of the designer over-modeling is an enrichment 
which is not subordinated to the surface. In articles intended for 
service this high relief modeling is unsanitary and unsatisfactory. 
Figures 28(J and 287 show incising with slight modeling, while 
324, 328, and 329 are examples of more complex enrichment. 



148 



• SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF CLAY • 
• KECT/MiC-ULAR. AND SQUARE AR.EA>S> 

i- 

kev to zones of emkichmemt 

A' MAKC-1M OF SURFACE.- 
B • CEhTER. OF SURLFA.CE. ■ 
C ■ FULL HOR.1ZOMTAL 
5>U R FACE 

O ■ Full vej^ticai- 

SURFACE 
E • FREE&ALArtCE ON 

FULL SUR.FA.CE 
F • ACCE.HTE.D CONTOUR. 



?-:r 






FIG- 2. S3 • C 



F1C- 2.84- A-1-4-- FIG- 2.85- B-J-4-- 




Plate 47 



149 



With the introduction of the second group comes an added interest 
and difficulty, that of the introduction of color. Pigments that will 
withstand the application of heat are suggested at different points. 

4. This process consists of removing certain areas from the clay 
body to the depth of one-eighth inch and filling in the depression with 
tinted clay. Tints formed by the addition of ten per cent or less of 
burnt umber or yellow ochre to the modeling clay will give interesting 
effects. Figures 2S4, 285, 320, and 321 show forms which may be 
developed by this process. 

Sgraffito, an Italian process, is more difficult than inlaying, but 
the effect is similar. A thin layer of colored clay is placed over the 
natural clay body, and the design is developed by cutting away this 
colored coating in places, thus exposing I he natural clay body. 
Figure 30G. There are variations of this plan that may be attempted 
by the advanced designer. 

5. Slip is clay mixed with water to the consistency of cream. 
For slip painting this mixture is thoroughly mixed with not more than 
ten per cent of coloring pigment as represented by the underglaze 
colors of the ceramist. This thick, creamy, colored slip is then 
painted on the surface of the clay body while damp, much as the 
artist would apply oil colors. The ware, when thoroughly dried, 
is glazed and fired, which produces the effect shown in Figures 290, 
201, and 327. The color range is large; ahnosl any color may be used 
with the exception of reds and strong yellows. A colorless trans- 
parent glaze should be used over beginner's slip painting. 

(>. This process refers to the direct ml rodnelion of the colored 
pigment into the glaze. By varying the glaze formula we may have 
a clear, transparent, or glossy glaze similar to Figure 317, a dull 
surfaced opaque effect, termed a matt glaze. Figure 332; or a glossy 
but opaque faience glaze similar to the blue and while Dutch tiles. 
There are other forms such as the crystalline and "reduced'" glazes, 
bnl these as a rule are far beyond the ability of the beginning crafts- 
man in ceramics. 

It is possible to use these three types of glazed surface in various 
ways. For example, a vase form with an interesting contour may be 
left without fur! her surface enrichment except thai supplied by clear 
glaze or by a colored malt similar lo certain types of Teco Ware. 



Introduction 
of Coloring 
Pigments 



Inlay 



Slip 
Painting 



Colored 
Glazes 



Combinations 



150 



•SURFACE. EHK.ICHMEMT OF CL/VY " 
5HALLOW ORLCUL.A.R. FORM5 : PLATE.3ETC- 



KEY TO TPROCE55E3 OF ENRICHMENT 
BY MANIPULATION OFTHE CLAY BODY- 

1 • INCISING • 

2 • PIERCING- 

3 • MODELING • 

BY ADDITION OF COLOR.- 

A- - IN THE CLAY : INLAY • SC-KAJ^FITO • 

5- UPON THE CLAY. - SLIP PAINTING- 

6- IMTHE GLAZE: f cleak 

TYPE.S - . { MATT 

[ OPAQUE (FAIENCE) 

7- UNDER THEl&LAZE : UNDEKC.LAZE PAINTING 

8- UPON THE C-iLAZE: POKCELAIN PA\HT\HG 
KEY TO ZONES OF ENRICHMENT 

A- MAR.CMN OF SURFACE 



ACCEMTED COMTOUI? 



FIG- 29© • A • a 




FIC-SOO- A • <S (OPAOUE) 6 



FIG • 30\ 



S 




FIG • 303 • A • 8 



FIG • 305- • A- 8 



F-|<S • 3o€>- A." A- ( tX^AFFITCV) 



Plate 48 



[ 151 



It is likewise possible to apply transparent glazes over incised designs, 
inlay or slip painting, increasing their beauty and the serviceability 
of the ware. A semi-transparent glaze is sometimes placed over slip 
painting giving the charm inherent to the Vellum Ware of the Rook- 
wood Potteries. Figure 332. Greens, blues, yellows, and browns, 
with their admixtures, are the safest combinations for the craftsman 
who desires to mix his own glazes. 

7. This process may be seen in the examples of Xewcomb Pottery 
illustrated particularly in Figure 314 or 3 L 2C). The underglaze Underglaze 
pigment is thinly painted upon the fired "biscuit," or unglazed ware. Painting 

A thin, transparent glaze is then placed over the color, and in the final 
firing the underneath color shows through this transparent coating, 
thus illustrating the origin of the name underglaze or under-the-glaze 
painting. Sage-green and cobalt-blue underglaze colors are fre- 
quently used in Xewcomb designs with harmonious results. The 
outline of the design is often incised and the underglaze color, settling 
into these channels, helps to accentuate the design. Figure 314. 

8. This is popularly known as china painting and consists of Porcelain 
painting directly upon the glazed surface of the ware and placing or Overglaze 
it in a china kiln where a temperature between GOO degrees and 900 Painting 
degrees C. is developed. At this point the coloring pigment melts 

or is fused into the porcelain glaze, thus insuring its reasonable 
permanence. Figure 30 L 2. 

The eight processes briefly described may be readily identified 
on the plates by referring to the figures corresponding to those 
which number the processes and are added to each figure number. 
Two processes are sometimes suggested as possible for one problem. 

Different clay forms require different modes of treatment. To 
simplify these treatments will now be our problem. It has been found classification 
convenient to form four divisions based upon the general geometric of Structural 
shape of the ware. The first, Plate 47, includes rectangular and Clay Forms 
square areas; the second, Plate 48, shallow and circular forms; 
the third, Plate 49, low cylindrical forms; and the fourth. Plate 50, 
high cylindrical forms. The first three divisions have distinct modes 
of design treatment, while the fourth interlocks to a considerable 
extent with the third method. We shall now consider each plate 
with reference to its use and possible forms of enrichment. For the 



[ 1J2 1 



5UR.FACE. EnF^-lCHMEMT OF CLAV - 
LOW CVLIMDRICAL F="0^_m £> * 



cf: 

for additional 
low bowl sug- 

GE5TlOh5- SEE 
PLATE. 3 • 




note: 
' ', ' the letter 

FOLLOW | HC-i EACH 
MUMBEe 5HOW5 THE 
ZOriE OF EMKICHMEMT-THE 
16UKE 5UGGE5T5 Efl^lCHMEMT 

l-l^~~\\ \ / 




FIG- "*>I4--D- 1+7 



FI&-315-- E. • &■ MATT 



FIG-316- \5THE 
APPROACH TO 
HIGHER FOKr-l^' 
HOTE. THE IM- 
PORTANCE. OF 
F1&-316-D THE VERTICAL 
I + 7 LINE.-- • 



Plate 4!) 



[153] 

sake of brevity, the results have been condensed into tabulated forms. 
Each geometric form or type on these plates has not only distinc- 
tive methods of design treatment but characteristic locations for 
placing the design as well. These places or zones of enrichment have 
been indicated in the following tabulated forms by the letters in 
parentheses. There are a number of zones for each plate. For 
example, Plate 47 has its distinctive problems as tiles, weights, etc., 
and five characteristic zones of enrichment described on pages 153- 
155 and indicated by the letters A, B, C, D, E, followed by a 
brief description of that zone. Each zone is still further analyzed 
into its accompanying type of design, inceptive axis, point of con- 
centration, and illustrations. Each plate has the proper zone of 
enrichment immediately following the figure number and in turn 
followed by the process number. 



Problems: Tiles for tea and coffee pots, paper weights, window 
boxes; architectural tiles for floors, and fire places. 

(A) Zone of Enrichment: In the margin. 

Reason for Choice: Central area to be devoted to zone of service 

requiring simplicity in design. 

Type of Design: Bands or borders. 

Inceptive Axis: For corners; the bisector of the angle. 

Points of Concentration: The corners and, if desired, at equal 

intervals between the corners. 

Illustrations: Figures 283, 284, 286, 287, 288. 



Square and 
Rectangular 
Areas, 
Plate 47 



Marginal 
Enrichment 



(B) Zone of Enrichment: center of surface, free ornament. 

Type of Design: Initials, monograms, street numbers, geometric Center 

patterns, and other examples for free ornament. A star or din- Enrichment 

mond is not appropriate enrichment for a square area unless 

properly related to the contour by connecting areas. 

Inceptive Axes: Vertical or horizontal diameters or diagonals. 

Points of Concentration: Center of embellishment. 

Illustrations: Figure 285. 



154 



> 5URFACE EttKlCHMEIiTOF CLAY • 

HIGH CYLINDRICAL FOCM5- VASES • PITCHER'S- -ETC • 

KEY TO ZONES OF ENRICHMENT LETTEK5 ON PLATE. 4-1 -TO PROCESSES OF ErtJTICHM EftT 

PLATE. 4-2. • 





^♦$M 



! ! s 

I I u!' 

! I -I 





FIG-319-A- I 



FIG -32.0 A- 4- 5 F1G3Z1-A-5--8 



FIG 322- D- 6 



FI&-3Z3-0-5-8 



k:\ 



V* l l 



FI6-3Z4D-3- 




FlG-325-THE APPEARAHCE OF AM CVEC- 
MOOELEDEHeiCHMEMT- IT IS UNSAN 
ITA^Y AND IS MOT TI^UE "5UI?FACE OJ?NA 

MENT 



FlCi 52 8-D- 3 



FIG- 326- D 
•I • T- 




FIG. 33o ? 



FIG 33\ • 5" 
• A.- 



FIG 3-52 A- 5"- 



Plate 50 



[ 155 ] 

(C) Zone of Enrichment: full surface enrichment in a horizontal 
position. 

Type of Design: A symmetrical pattern generally radiating from 

the geometric center of the surface and covering at least two-thirds 

of the surface. Horizontal 

Inceptive Axes: Diameters or diagonals of the area. Surface 

Points of Concentration: At the corners or the center of the outer Enrichment 

margin; at geometric center, as in a rosette. 

Illustrations: Figures 283, 289, and 291. 

(D) Zone of Enrichment: full surface enrichment in a vertical 

position. 

Type of Design: A symmetrical pattern with a strong upward 

T * Vertical 

movement and covering more than one-half of the surface. , 

-i i- Surface 

Inceptive Axis: The vertical center line. Enrichment 

Point of Concentration: Upper section of the surface. 

Illustrations: Figures 290 and 292. 



*&' 



(E) Zone of Enrichment: free balance over full surface. 

Type of Design: Semi-decorative motive preferably covering the 

entire surface. jr ree 

Inceptive Axis: Masses freely balanced over the geometric center Balance 

of the area. 

Point of Concentration: Near, but not in the exact center. 

Illustrations: Figures 293, 294, 295, 29(1, 297, 298. 

Note: The points of concentration should be accented by slight 

contrast of value and hue. See chapters on color. 

Problems: Plates, saucers, ash trays, card receivers, almond Shallow 
and candy bowls. Circular 

Forms, 
(/I) Zone of Enrichment: margin of interior surface: margin of exte- Plate 48 
rior surface. 

Type of Design: Hands or borders thoroughly related to the struc- 
tural contours. Hands for exterior enrichment may be placed 
directly on the contour. Figures 299 and 301, thus forming an 



156 



J_- 

• Applied and Com5tr.uctive Design • 

RULE. 9 '. ENRICHMENT OFTHE. PRIMARY MAS5 &t A BORDER. • 

PROoLErU ENRICHMENT OF CL/\SS 2 ( POTTERY) • 

BORDERS AREWELL ADAPTED TO THIS CLASS AMD MUST ECHO 
OR PA.RAwL.LE.l_ A. DOMINANT PROPORTIOM • THE BORDE.R MU5T 
CAUSE THE E-fE. TO TRAVEL IM THE. DIRECTIOM OF THIS PROPORTION 
HEMCE .ALL OF ITS COMPONENT PARTS MUST P05SE35 CONCERTED 
ACTION IM THIS DIEECTlOrt ORRHYTHH-RH'TTHM \5 THE. CON515TEMT CO- 
ORDINATION OF PARTS THAT ASSISTS THE EXE TO FIND ITS WAY THROUGH 
ALL DETAILS OFTHE DESIGN- 



FORMAL Bl 3YMHETRICAL *?_PET»TtOM 



FREE. PEPETITIOM 



•^r -Jr "\r ~\\r -\V- -\\r ~\\r -\\r -J/' -\\r ->.\r ^\r 



*¥^ 



pmx&ftx 



rVKELETOH ©ORDERS FOR WALL 5URFACE5 WITH MLW5IC AA. ANAI_OG» _5 




* DRAW TWO DI-51GMS ILLUSTRATING THli FORM OFEMRICHnENT 



Plate 51. — Instruction Sheet 



[157] 

accented contour (F) or slightly removed from it, as in Figure 
300. Marginal 

Inceptive Axes: For interior surfaces, the radii of the contour Enrichment 
circle generally supply the axes of symmetry. 
Points of Concentration: For interior surfaces, the points of con- 
centration may be placed in or near the radii of the area. 
Illustrations: Figures 303, 303, 304, 305, 30(5. 



Problems: Cups, pitchers, steins, nut and rose bowls, low vase 
forms. 

(A) Zone of Enrichment: upper margin of exterior. 

Type of Design: Borders of units joining each other or connected 
by bands or spots acting as connecting links. Rule 9c. 
Inceptive Axes: Vertical elements of the exterior surface. Ele- 
ments are imaginary lines dividing the exterior surface into any 
given number of vertical sections. Elements used as center lines 
form the axes of symmetry about which the butterfly of Figure 
308 and similar designs are constructed. 
Points of Concentration: On each vertical element. 
Illustrations: Figures 30S, 309, 310, 311, 312, 31G. 



Low 

Cylindrical 
Forms, 
Plate 49 



Marginal 
Enrichment 



(D) Zone of Enrichment: full vertical surface. 

Type of Design: Extended borders with strongly developed 
vertical lines or forms. Less than one-half of the surface may be F ,, 
covered. Vertical 

Inceptive Axes: Vertical elements. Surface 

Points of Concentration: In upper portion of vertical elements, Enrichment 
hence in upper portion of area. 
Illustrations: Figures 307, 314, 317, 318. 



{E) Zone of Enrichment: free balance of full surface. (See D, above). 

Illustration: Figure 31. >. 

High 
Cylindrical 

Problems: Vases, jars, pitchers, tall flower holders, covered jars Forms, 

for lea, crackers, or lobaeco. Plate 50 



Marginal 
Enrichment 



[158] 

(A) Zone of Enrichment: margin of exterior. 

Type of Design: Borders of geometric units, freely balanced floral 
units, and other natural motives placed in upper margin of mass. 
Inceptive Axes: Vertical elements of cylinder. 
Points of Concentration: In upper portion of vertical elements. 
Illustrations: Figures 319, 320, 321, 327, 331, 332. 



(D) Zone of Enrichment: full surface of exterior. 
Y u ]\ Type of Design: Free of formal conventionalized unit repeated 

Surface on each vertical element. The units may be juxtaposed or may 

Enrichment be connected by bands or similar links. 

Inceptive Axes: Vertical elements of cylinder. 

Point of concentration: In upper portion of vertical elements. 

Illustrations: Figures 322, 323, 324, 326, 328, 329. 

The reader should carefully consider the postulate and various 

divisions of Rule 7 and try to apply them to the material now under 

Types of consideration. Acknowledgment is made for material supplied by the 

Commercial Rookwood Potteries for Figures 288, 289, 292, 293, 294, 297, 298, 315; 

Pottery 327 and 332; Xewcomb Potteries, Figures 314, 316, 317, 318, 326; 

Teco Potteries, 329; Keramic Studio Publishing Company, 302, 307, 

308, 310, 312. 

INSTRUCTION SHEET 

Plate 51 illustrates the marginal surface enrichment of low cylindrical 
forms, with part surface enrichment of two higher forms. 



SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS 

(fl) Draw primary mass: 

For square or rectangular areas draw square rectangle, etc. 

For shallow circular forms draw a circle. 

For low cylindrical forms draw a rectangle; subdivide this if desired by a 

unit of measurement into two horizontal divisions. 
For high cylindrical forms draw a rectangle; subdivide this if desired by a 

unit of measurement into two or three horizontal divisions. Rule 5e. 

(b) Design simple contour enrichment based upon these units of measurement. 

(c) Locate zone of enrichment. 

(d) Draw inceptive axes: 

For square or rectangular areas draw diameters, diagonals, or both. 



[159] 

For shallow circular forms draw radii of the primary circle; concentric 

circles for bands. 
For low cylindrical forms draw the elements of the underlying cylindrical 
form for extended borders or lines paralleling the top or bottom of the 
primary mass for bands. 
For high cylindrical forms draw inceptive axes similar to low cylindrical 
forms. 
(e) Locate points of concentration in these inceptive axes, 
i/) Determine manner and amount of surface enrichment. 
(g) Add leading lines and develop these into surface enrichment. 
(h) Make potter's working drawing, full size (See Plate 26). Add the necessary 

amount for shrinkage and otherwise prepare the drawing for potter's use. 
(0 Make a paper tracing of the surface enrichment for transfer to clay body 
and cut a zinc or tin template as a contour guide in building the form. 



SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 

Design a cider or chocolate set with appropriate surface enrichment. 
Design an architectural tile G in. by 9 in. for accenting a brick fireplace in 
the home. 



SUMMARY OF RULES 

Rule 9a. Surface enrichment of clay must be so designed as to be able to with- 
stand the action of heat to which all ware must be submitted. 

Rule 9b. Incised, pierced, and modeled decoration in clay should be simple 
and bold and thus adapted to the character of the material. 

Rule 9c. A border should not be located at the point of greatest curvature 
in the contour of a cylindrical form. The contour curve is of sufficient interest in 
itself at that point. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. Compare the surface enrich incut of clay with that of wood. 

2. State a major requirement of a good pottery design. 

IS. Give the broad divisions into which it is possible to divide the decorative pro- 
cesses of clay surface enrichment. 

i. Name and briefly describe eight methods of enriching the surface of clay. 

5. What precautions should be exercised with regard to the use of incised, 
pierced, and modeled decoration? 

(!. Should a bonier be placed at the point of greatest curvature of the contour? 
Give reasons. 

7. Name method of classifying structural forms in clay into four groups. 

8. State problems and possible zones of enrichment in each group. Give 

reasons for choice. 

9. State type of design unit, conventionalized, natural or artificial forms, 

location of inceptive axis, points of concentration, and process for each 
zone of enrichment. 
10. What is an clement of a cylindrical surface? 



Chapter XIII 

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF PRECIOUS METALS 

Small Flat Planes 



Base and 

Precious 

Metals 



Divisions 

for 

Enrichment 



Chapter XII referred to clay as a free and plastic material adapted 
to a wide range of surface enrichment processes. Metal as a more 
refractory material offers greater resistance to the craftsman and is 
relatively more limited in its capacity for surface enrichment. As 
was the case in the consideration of contour enrichment for designing 
purposes, it is necessary in the consideration of surface enrichment 
to divide metal into two groups: precious and base metals. As the 
field of design in both base and precious metals is large, we shall con- 
sider the surface enrichment of precious metals only in this chapter. 

Following an order similar in character to that used in clay 
designing, problems in both base and precious metals may be divided 
into four classified groups as follows: flat, square, rectangular, or 
irregular planes; shallow circular forms; low cylindrical forms; 
high cylindrical forms. Designs included in the first group, flat 
planes, comprise such problems as are typically represented by tie 
pins, fobs, rings, and pendants. The design problems presented by 
these examples are so important that it is wise to restrict this chapter 
to flat planes. 

Rule lOg. The inceptive axis should pass through and coincide 
with one axis of a stone, and at the same time be sympathetically related 
to the structure. 

Rule I Oh. The position of the i)iccptivc axis should be determined: 
by: (1) use of the project as ring, pendant, or bar pin, ( c 2) character of 
the primary mass as either vertical or horizontal in proportion. 

The semi-precious or precious stone is commonly found to be the 
point of concentration of these designs. The inceptive axes of tie 
pins, pendants, and fobs are generally vertical center lines because of 
the vertical positions of the objects when worn. The inceptive axes, 

f icol 



161 



moreover, should pass through the point of concentration and, at the 
same time, be sympathetically related to the structure. Rings and 
bar pins are frequently designed with horizontal inceptive axes, so 
determined by their horizontal characteristics and positions. 

The point of concentration for tie pins, pendants, and fobs in 
formal balance, in addition to coinciding with the inceptive axis, is 
generally located above or below the geometric center of the primary 
mass. The point of concentration for rings and bar pins is placed 
in the horizontal inceptive axis and centrally located from left to 
right. 

As a step preliminary to designing, and in order that the enrich- 
ment may be conventionalized or adapted to conform to the require- 
ments of tools, processes, and materials, it is now imperative to become 
familiar with a number of common forms of sin-face enrichment in 
metal. There are eight processes frequently encountered in the 
decoration of silver and gold: piercing, etching, chasing or repousscing, 
enameling, inlaying, stone setting, building, carving. To these may 
be added planishing, frosting or matting, and oxidizing as methods 
employed to enrich the entire surface. Economy of material is 
of prime importance 1 in the designing of precious metal and, particu- 
larly in gold projects, conservation of the metals should be an urgent 
consideration in all designs. 

Rule K)a. Designs in precious metals should cull for the minimum 
amount of metal necessary to express the idea of the designer for tiro 
reasons: (1) good taste: ( L 2) economy of material. 

A non-technical and brief description of each process follows. 
All designs in this chapter may be identified by referring to (he process 
numbers after the figure description as 1, .'}, 5; "i, 4, (J, corresponding 
to the key numbers on Plate ,5 L 2. A design to be submitted to the 
craftsman should be a graphic record of technical facts in addition to 
good design, which requires that we should have an expressive 
technical means of rendering each process. The last column, on Plate 
/5 C 2, indicates this rendering. In addition to this rendering each one 
of the eight technical processes has been carried through three design 
steps. 1. (first column, Plate .>2) Planning the original primary 
mass, with its inceptive axis suggested by the structure and intended 
use It passes through the point of concentration, 'i. (second 



Inceptive 
Axes and 
Points of 
Concentra- 
tion 



Typical 
Processes of 
Enrichment 



Economy of 
Material 



Evolution and 
Technical 
Rendering of 
Processes 



16-2 



SURFACE. ENRICHMENT OF SHALL PRIMARV nA55ES IM METAL WITH 
EVOLUTION AMD RENDERING OF EIGHT PROCE.50ES OF EMRICHNIEHT • 

LEADING" UliES AMD •SUSJFA.CF FHPtrHMFMT 

THE! PRIMARY MASS COMTOUK EMRICHMEMT SURFACE ETteiCHriEMT 



I- PIERCING ' 



FIG-334-' 



2 -ETCH IMG 



3CHAS1HG 



FIG-33T- 



HG340 



4- ENAMELLING" 



0> 

I 
i 



i 
i 



Js 



i 
I 

i 



FIG 






F1G-336- 






FIG-34I 



ri 



F1G-336 



$jf ) 



FIG -339 



FIG- 542 



.V> 7 , 



»\ /S« 



Flgr^44- C : J FIG 345- ( J 



JJIMLAVIhG • I ^ 

FIG 346 



6 5TOME. 
SETTING 



7- BuiLDiriG 



6CAKV1MG 



FIG 34S 



it) 

r 

i 

— i — 



-^~ 



1 

7^ 



FIG-34T 



FIG 350 




ITT 



o — c'JD* — < 



FIG 35Z- 



i5£j 

FIG- 355- 



FIG-353 



FIG 35G 



F1CS- 35-*- 




F1G 



HOTE : PROCESS 4- IS PeEFERA&LV TeEttDEK^LO lt-l TEMPEEA 
& • " " WAX • 



35T- 
CO LOt^ 



Plate 5 l 2 



1G3 



column, Plate 52). The division of the primary mass into zones of 
service and enrichment with the suggestion of the lending lines which, 
at some points, are parallel to the contours and lead up to the point 
of concentration. The contours in this column have, in several 
instances, been changed to add lightness and variety to the problem. 
3. The last step (column three, Plate o L 2) shows the design with 
graphic rendering suggestive of the completed process. 

Technical Processes and Methods of Illustrating Same 

in a Design 

1. Removal of design unit or background by means of the 
jeweler's saw. Bridges of metal should be left to support firmly Piercing 
all portions of the design. Test this by careful study of the design. 
Rendering — shade all pierced portions of I he design in solid black. 
Slightly tint portions of the design passing under other parts. Illus- 
tration, Figure 33G. 

Rule lOj. All surface enrichment should hare an appearance of 
compactness or unity. Pierced spots or areas should be so used as to 
avoid the appearance of having been scattered on the surface without 
tliought to their coherence. 

2. Coating either design or background with an acid resistant, 

to be followed by immersion of the article in an acid bath. Allow Etching 
the unprotected portion to be attacked and eaten by the acid to a 
slight depth. Rendering — slightly tint all depressed or etched parts 
of the design. Illustration, Figure 33!). 

3. The embossing and fine embellishment of a metal surface by 

the application of the hammer and punches. The work is conducted Chasing or 
mainly from the top surface. Rendering stipple all parts of Repouss^ing 
the background not raised by the process. Chasing should seem an 
integral pari of the background and not appear stuck upon it. Illus- 
tration, Figure 342. Rule 10k. 

4. A process of enameling over metal in which the ground is cut 

away into a series of shallow troughs into which the enamel is melted. Enameling 
Exercise reserve in the use of enamel. Over-decoration lends to (Champleve) 
cheapen this valuable form of decoration. Rendering — shade the 
lower and right-hand sides of all enameled areas to suggest relief. 
Illustration, Figure %\C>. If possible render in tempera color. 



1C4 



- SURFACE. ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY D^SL5 IN PRECIOUS METAL 
COrlTOUFL AMD SURFACE- EM^lCHMEnT OF FLAT PLANES 

Plli-S AMD BROOCHES 

VERTICAL. INCEPTIVE. AXE5 






FIG-55&-6- FlOi-359-6 P16-36Q-6 



DESIGNED »•< THE 
STudehts of mil- 

V/AUKe.E-V)OWMEK 
COLLEGE.- 



FI(S- 365-6-1 



-*S=B* ^SS^ 




riG-361-6 FI6-362-6-7- FI6-163-6-7- 





FIG- 3.66-5 -&0Z1 F16-361-6-I 






FI&- 36© - 6-17- FlC-,-369-6-1'8- FIG- 3~TO ~ €> • \ 

Horizontal imceptivf_axes 





FIG -311 -6- 1-8 



F1G-37Z -e>- 3 • 6 • 

DESICrlE-D &Y HISS EDNA HOWARD 
Uttl- OF WIS- 



Plate 53 



165 



Rule lOi. Caution should be exercised with regard to the use of 
enamel. Over-decoration by this material tends to cheapen both process 
and design. 

Rule 101. The lanes or margins between enameled spots should be 
narrower than the lane or margin between the enamel and the contour 
of the primary mass. 

5. The process of applying wire, etc., to an incision on metal 
either by burnishing or fusing the metal into the cavities. Rendering Inlaying 
— tint the darker metal or, if possible, render in color. Illustration, 
Figure 348. 

G. An enrichment of the surface by the addition of semi-precious 
or precious stones. Other enrichment is generally subordinated to Stone 
the stone which then becomes the point of concentration. All Cutting 
enrichment should lead toward the stone. Small stones may, how- 
ever, be used to accentuate other points of concentration in surface 
enrichment. Rendering — shade the lower and right-side 1 of the stone 
to suggest relief. Pierced subordinate enrichment should be shaded 
in solid black. A concentric line should be drawn outside of the 
contour of the stone to designate the thin holding band, or bezel, 
enclosing the stone on all sides. Illustration, Figure 351. 

Rule lOd. Surface enrichment should at some point parallel the 
contours of both primary mass and point of concentration, especially 
whenever the latter is a stone or enamel. 

Rule 10c. In the presence of either stone or enamel as a point of 
concentration, surface enrichment should be regarded as an unobtrusive 
setting, or background. 

Rule 1 Of. Stone or enamel used as a point of concentration should 
form contrast with the metal, cither in color, brilliancy, or value, or all 
three combined. 

7. The process of applying leaves, wire, grains, and other forms 

of surface enrichment to the plane of the metal. These may after- Building 
wards be carved or chased. Rendering shade the lower and 
right-hand lines; slightly lint the lower planes of the metal. Illus- 
tration. Figure 3.VI. 

8. The process of depressing or raising certain portions of the 
met a! surface by means of chisels and gravers. Ry I he use of these 
tools tin 1 surface is modeled into planes of light and shade, to which 



166 




I 



. '' » f P ' « W !ff p' w»j|"wf,prw 




Figure 37 L 2a. — Tie Pins 



Courtesy of the Elverhoj Colony 








f' " ' ' ■ ■■ I W WMP 



mm*m*mm 



Figuue 372b.— Tie Fins 



Courtesy of the Elverhoj Colony 



167 



interest is added if the unaggressive tool marks are permitted to remain 
on the surface. Rendering — shade the raised and depressed portions 
to express the modeling planes. As this is a difficult technical pro- 
cess the designer is advised to model the design in plastelene or 
jewelers' wax first. Illustration, Figure 357. 

Rule 10k. Built, carved, and chased enrichment should have the 
higher planes near the point of concentration. It is well to have the 
stone as the highest point above the primary mass. When using this 
form of enrichment, the stone should never appear to rise abruptly from 
the primary mass, but should be approached by a series of rising planes. 

9. The process of smoothing and, at the same time, hardening 
the surface of the metal with a steel planishing hammer. The ham- 
mer strokes give an interesting texture to the surface which may be 
varied, from the heavily indented to the smooth surface, at the will 
of the craftsman. The more obvious hammer strokes are not to be 
desired as they bring a tool process into too much prominence for 
good taste. Rendering — print desired finish on the drawing. 

10. A process of sand blasting or scratch brushing a metal 
surface to produce an opaque or "satin" finish. Rendering — sim- 
ilar to planishing. 

11. A process of darkening the surface of metal by I he application 
of chemicals. Potassium sulphite will supply a deep, rich black to 
silver and copper. Rendering — see Planishing. 

The eleven processes mentioned above are among those which, 
by recent common practice, have become familiar to the craftsman 
in precious metals. While they do not cover the entire field, they 
at least give the beginner an opportunity to design intelligently in 
terms of the material. 

Plate 53 is mainly the enrichment of the flat plane by the addition 
of semi-precious stones (process six). Whatever surface enrichment 
is added to this design becomes dependent enrichment and quite 
analogous to dependent contour enrichment, Plate c 2i), inasmuch as 
it has to be designed with special reference to the shape and character 
of the stone. Figures 35S to 3(13 are examples of dependent contour 
enrichment; Figures 3(1 1- to 371 are examples of dependent surface 
enrichment. Figures 358 to 3(i7 are based upon vertical inceptive 
axes as appropriate to their intended service. The point of eon- 



Carving 



Planishing 



Frosting 



Oxidizing 



Design of 
Pins and 
Brooches 



Dependent 
Surface 
Enrichment 
for Pins 



168 



SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES 1M PRECIOUS METALS 
• CONTOUR AMD SURFACE ENRICHMENT APPLIED TO FOBS • 
MA1MLT FULL SURFACE. EHRICHMEMT BA5ED UPOM VERTICAL 

INCEPTIVE. AXE5 




"fl 



FIC-r374--|-G>-0 • 




Fic-i-313- i -e-e, 



F1G-375-I-&-7- 







EM^lCHnEMT OF PLATP-LMIES 
IN VEErncAU POSITION 5 • 



FIG.- 576- >• 3-6' 




- 

'.fir 1 


ft 






JB^fl 


>3 






m 




jp^^a*'. 




T4i ^W| 





FIG-311- I- FIG -37a-l-e>-7- DE5ICiNEDP>-i'l1l^-E- HOWARD FIG- 37©- I - 4- ■ 

5CHOOU ARTS MA.C-AZ1M& 





DE516MED BV 
HISS EOHA 
HOWARD- — 
UMl OF Wli- 




FIG -360 -I "6- BX MR HAA3- 



FIG 331-6-3-7 
Platk 54 



FIG 382. - 3 • <3 « 



[169] 

centration may be located at practically any point on this inceptive 
axis, provided the major axis of the stone coincides with the inceptive 
axis. The best results are obtained by placing" the stone a little 
above or below the exact geometrical center of the primary mass. 

Figures 368 to 372 show articles based upon a horizontal inceptive 
axis. The stone, in accordance with formal balance, is in the geo- i nce ptive 
metric center from left to right. One notices the important fact that Axes 
the surface enrichment must bring the stone and contour together for Pins 
in sympathetic relation and, at the same time, be related to both 
stone and contour. This again brings out the meaning of dependent 
surface enrichment. The contour enrichment is to be kept as simple 
as possible and the interest concentrated upon the surface enrichment. 
The accentuation of both surface and contour enrichment in a single 
design marks the height of bad taste in design. 

Rule 10b. Contour and surface enrichment should never appear 
to compete for attention in the same design. 

Plate 54 shows flat planes, the service of which suggests vertical 
inceptive axes. Figure 380 is noted as an exception to this vertical Fobs 
inceptive axis as it possesses a vertical primary mass but with radial 
inceptive axes. The interesting manner by which the dynamic 
leaves of the outer border transmit their movement to the inner 
border, which in turn leads toward the point of concentration, is 
worthy of attention. The points of concentration in other designs 
on this plate are all contained in the vertical inceptive axes. 

Plate .5.5, at first thought, would seem to fall under the classi- 
fication of low cylindrical forms but when reference is made to Figure Rings 
38.5 it is readily seen that the ring has to be first developed as a flat 
plane, to be afterwards bent into the required form. Care should be 
taken to keep the design narrow enough to be visible when the ring 
is in position on the finger. 

The long horizontal band of the ring supplies the motive for the 
horizontal inceptive axis as a common basis or starting point for a 
large number of designs. If the designer so desires, the vertical 
axis of the finger is authority for an elliptical stone to be placed with 
its major axis as a vertical line in harmony with the finger axis. In 
any instance the designer seeks to lead the eye from the horizontal 
portion of the ring (the finger band) toward the point of concenlra- 



170 



SURFACE. ENRICHMENT OF 5MALL PRIMARY MAvS5E5 IN PRECIOU5 METAL 
EHK1CHMENT OF FLAT PLAttES 



< «e 



FIG. 385-6-1 AMD 6-7 




_.*_. 



3, 




FIG 364 -6-4- -a 



FIC-.-385-THLEV0LUTI0M 
OF A KirtCi DE51GH •• - I PRI- 
MARY NAS5 • 2 • CQHTQ0R EH- 
^riT- 5 -SURFACE EflRhT- 




FI6- 366- 6- 8 




FIG- 387 -<S- 7 
IHTKOOUCtOTO JHOVS/THE 
MEED OF& VERTICAL £ 





FK-. -36&-6-6' 



FIG- 369 -61 ArtO 66 



nOTEl THE DESIGM.S A^E. tfAlML^ &ASEO UPOTl HQRIZOMTAL. 
IHCEPTIVE AXES- 5EE FIG • 3£>7 • 

FIGURES 3046 -8-3 WERE DESIGNED B'rniliEDriA HOWAR-0 

OM t- OF WIS ■ 



Plate 55 



171 




Courtesy of the Ehcrhoj Colony 



Figuue 3i)0a. — Rings 



tion (the stone), by means of surface enrichment. A long sloping 
contour curve helps, as a transition line in the boundary, to carry 
the attention from the stone to the finger band. A great number of 
devices are used to complete a similar transition in the surface 
enrichment. Figure 390a. Too much piercing weakens the struc- 
ture, and it is therefore to be avoided. 

Plate 50 suggests some vertical flat planes for pendants. While 
no definite rule can bo staled for the location of the stone, from past 
experience, it is easier for beginners to place the stone on the vertical 
inceptive axis slightly above the geometric center of the primary 
mass. Figures 891 to 395. A design thus formed is less likely to 
appear heavy, although there is nothing arbitrary about the 



suggestion. 



Rule 10c. Paris of a design differing in function should differ in 
appearance bid be co-ordinated irith the entire design. 

In pendant design I lie surface enrichment generally carries the 
attention from the contour of the pendant to the stone, thus insuring 



172 



SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SHALL PRIMARY MA5SE5iri PRECIOU5 METAL- 
EHK1CHME.MT OF FLAT FLAME.S OF 
PEMOAMTO- CHAINS • LOCICET5 • 

rr- -C, 



|| 



CL^jr 



FI<=>-39l-e>-2.- 







FIC09Z-6-2.- RG-393f 6'|- FI&-394--6- I ■ Fie 395 - €r I ■ 

FOB DE5IC.MED BT fllSS E-KQ5EMCRAH2. 

FI&-396-Z-3- ' um ' JFWi - 




fig • 3sa - e>-s 

DESIGNED RrtrtlSS E- HOWAED 

UMior- v<ii- 




FlG400-6-a 



BOTE Fl&- 387 • 



FIG 399 - €>-Z •& • 

DEIGNED ?Y MIJJ E- HOVVAKD 




FIG • 4-OI - 6-1 -T • 

designed 8^ 5tudemts or milwaukee- dqwmek college 
Plate 50 



[ 173 ] 

unity at this point, while the contour lines often lead the attention Pendants 
from the pendant to the chain. The eye should move in unbroken and Chains 
dynamic movement from pendant to chain. The chain may have 
points of accent designed to vary the even distribution of the links. 
These accents are frequently composed of small stones with surface 
enrichment sympathetically designed in unity with pendant, chain, 
and stone. Figure 401 shows examples of this arrangement and 
similarly the need of a horizontal inceptive axis to harmonize with the 
length of the chain. These small accents are quite similar in design 
to bar pin motives. 

Rule 10m. Transparent and opaque stones or enamel should not 
be used in the same design. 

For the designer's purposes we may consider two kinds of stones, 
the transparent and the opaque. These should not be mixed in one R e i a ti n 
design. The most favorable stones are those forming contrasts f stones 
of value or brilliancy with the metal as, for example, the amethyst, to Metal 
lapis lazuli, or New Zealand jade, with silver; or the dark topaz, or 
Xew Zealand jade, with gold. Lack of these contrasts gives dull, 
monotonous effects that fail to make the stone the point of concen- 
tration. Figure 407. These effects may be partially overcome by 
frosting, plating, or oxidizing the metal, thus forming stronger con- 
trasts of value 

ixstrictiox sheet 

Plates .VI and 57 are representative of the steps, processes, and problems 
for school use. 



SIM MARY OF DESIGN' STEPS 

(a) Draw the primary mass. 

(b) Locate the inreptive axis in this primary mass with it* direction determined 

by the ultimate use or position of the primary mass and its general shape. 
(r) Locate /.one of enrichment. 
(<l) Locate point of concentration in the zone of enrichment and in the inceptive 

axis. 
(r) Design simple contour enrichment. 
(/) Design leading lines in sympathy with the contour and leading toward 

the point of concentration. 
(y) Elaborate the leading lines in sympathy with the male-rial, the type of 

en rich 1 1 icnt, the contours, and the inceptive a\i-. 
(//) Render in the technical manner suggested by Plate •">-, dimension the 

primary mass, and otherwise prepare the drawing for simp use. 



174 




Courtesy of the Elverhoj Colony 

Figure 401a. — Pendants 



[175] 




Figure 40^2.— Pendants 



Courtesy of the Elvcrlinj Colony 



SUGGESTED PROBLEM 

Design a built-up ring using an elliptical cabuchon cut stone as the point of 
concentration. The inceptive axis is vertical. 



SUMMARY OF RILES 
Small Flat Planks 

Rule 10a. Designs in precious metals should cull for the minimum amount 
of metal necessary to express the idea of the designer for two reasons: (t) good 
taste; (■?) economy of material. 

Rule l()b. Contour and surface enrichment should never appear to compete 
(or attention in the same design. 

Rule 10c. Parts of a design differing in function should differ in appearance 
but be co-ordinated with the entire design. 

Rule 10d. Surface enrichment should at some point parallel the contours of 
both primary mass and point of concentration, especially whenever the latter is a 
stone or enamel. 

Rule 10c. In the presence of either stone or enamel as a point of concentration, 
surface enrichment should be regarded as an unobtrusive setting, or bachgrouud. 

Rule lOf. Stone or enamel used as a point of concentration should form 
contrast with the metal, cither in color, brilliancy, or value, or all three combined. 

Rule IOg. The inceptive axis should pass through and coincide with one axis 
of a stone, and at the same time be sympathetically related to the structure. 

Rule lOli. The position of the inceptive axis should be determined by (1) use 
of the project as ring, pendant, or bar pin, (J) character of the primary mass as 
cither vertical or horizontal in proportion. 

Rule lOi. Caution should be exercised with regard to the use of enamel. Over- 
decoration by this material tends to cheapen both process and design. 



17G 



KULE.S JO-ATOM.' SURFACE EMRICHMEMTOF 5MALL 
FLAT PLANES OF PRECIOUS METAL'^= INCEPTIVE AXIS 
• INSTRUCTION SHEET- 




-K 



•"PEMDAhT5 • RIMG5 AMD FOBS IN SILVER. 



DESIGNED BY Ml SVGEem)DE-E VANS' 
• o • or- w- 



Platk .37 



[177] 

Rule lOj. All surface enrichment .should have an appearance of compactness 
or unity. Pierced spots or areas should be so used as to aroid the appearance of 
having been scattered on the surface without thought to their coherence. 

Rule 10k. Built, carved, and chased enrichment should have the higher planes 
near the point of concentration. It is irell to have the stone as the highest point 
above the primary mass. When using this form of enrichment the stone should 
never appear to rise abruptly from the primary mass, but should be approached by a 
scries of rising planes. 

Rule 101. The lanes or margins between enameled spots should be narrower 
than the lane or margin between the enamel and the contour of the primary mass. 

Rule 10m. Transparent and opaque stones or enamel should not be used in the 
same design. 

Postulate. — The design should conform to the limitations and requirements 
of tools, processes, and materials, and should be durable and suitable for service. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. What is often used as a point of concentration in the surface enrichment 

of precious metals? Why? 

2. State direction of the inceptive axis for problems similar to: (a) tie pins, 

(b) pendants, (r) fobs, (d) rings, (c) bar pins? Why? Under what 
grouping of planes may they he placed? 

3. State the relation between the point of concentration and the inceptive axis. 

4. Give three steps in the design evolution of surface enrichment for small 

flat planes. 

5. Describe briefly eleven decorative processes for the surface enrichment 

of precious metals with the technical rendering of each. 
G. Illustrate examples of dependent contour and dependent surface enrichment 
of precious metals. 

7. Where should a stone in a design similar to a pin or brooch be placed with 

reference to the inceptive axis and the geometric center of the primary 
mass? 

8. Illustrate manner of planning primary mass, inceptive axis, point of con- 

centration, contour, and surface enrichment of: (") pins, {b) fobs, 

(c) rings, (V) pendants and chains. 

9. State the relation of stone or enamel to metal. 

10. What rule should govern the amount of metal used in a design? 

11. State the objection to a design with ( ontour and surface enrichment equally 

elaborated. 

12. Is it possible to vary the design motive of a chain from that of a pendant? 

Why and how? 

13. Give illustration and requirements of a good design in champleve enamel. 

14. What precautions should be exercised in designing pierced enrichment? 

15. What rules should be observed in designing a built-up or carved design? 



178 



SURFACE EriRICIinEMT or LARGE PRIMARY MASSES in PRECIOUS 
METALS • TRtATnthT OF FLAT AND Stm-FLAT SURFACES • 

WCTCK OF STUDCMTS OF niLWAUKfC - DOWNER. COLLEGE 




FIG -405- FULL SURFACE CMEICHMCMT: HG-406- A AMD B REPRESENT CENTER. 
PC- in CEMTEE.- I- EHEICHMtNT- I •!• 

Plate 58 



Chapter XIV 

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES 
IN BASE AND PRECIOUS METALS 

The surface enrichment of small, flat primary masses treated in Enrichment 
Chapter XIII emphasized the designer's tendency for full surface for Small 
enrichment of small areas. Such treatment has proved satisfactory Areas 
because the eye can readily and immediately observe and comprehend 
or assimilate an enrichment upon a small area. For larger enriched 
areas considered in this chapter, full surface enrichment becomes a 
questionable policy for the following reasons. 

It is true that the old time craftsman with consummate skill fully 
enriched large surfaces, but two factors interfere with this mode of 
treatment today. The first factor is the decidedly practical nature Enrichment 
of the problem. The service to which the modern industrial project for Large 
is put interferes with the use of full surface enrichment. The second Areas 
is the lack of skill on the part of the modern amateur designer. It is 
a sound policy to avoid the ornateness that frequently accompanies a 
large and unskillfully planned area. In place of this, we should 
limit the enrichment of large masses to a few salient areas which 
are well related to the structural lines. 

Rule lib. Conservative application should movie the use of surface 
enrichment of large masses. Its use should: (1) lighten ov soften neees- 
savilij heavy const met ion: (4) snppovt ov apparently strengthen good 
structure; (.'>) add interest to large unbroken and uninteresting surfaces. 

These salient areas should determine the surface enrichment 
appropriate to the structure, so that the enrichment : (I) will lighten 
or soften necessarily heavy construction as in Figure -M).'>; (*2) support 
or apparently strengthen good structure. Figure U.'>; (8) add in teres I ^ ± . , 
to large unbroken or otherwise uninteresting surfaces as illustrated , Good 
in Figure 405. To aid in producing I he desired results, we have the Surface 
technical processes mentioned in Chapter XI II as follows: (1) Piercing; Enrichment 

[ I7!>1 



180 




Figure 406a. — Mainly Objects Designed to be Seen from Above 

(2) Etching; (3) Chasing; (4) Enameling; (5) Inlaying; (G) Stone- 
setting; (7) Building; (8) Carving; (9) Planishing; (10) Frosting; 
(11) Oxidizing. On the plates for this chapter, the figure generally 
following the cut number refers to the process, as: Figure 44G, 3. 

Surface Design Evolution 

Rule 11a. The preliminary .steps toward surj'aee cnriehment should 
be thought out before they are drawn. 

A designer will be materially helped if he devotes a few moments 
of thought to his design problem before he applies the pencil to the 
paper. In the end the time given to thinking out his problem will 
gain for him both increased excellence of design and rapidity of 
execution, provided his thinking is systematic. A sequential order 
of points to be observed is given below. The object of systematic 
thought is to form a mental picture of the enrichment to be in full 
accord with the materials and construction and to be sympathetically 
related to the structural axes and to the contours. The unenriched 
mass has been designed and we are now ready for the consideration of 
surface enrichment in the following order. 



[181] 

(a) Placing the Zone of Service. 

., wl . ,, , c, Summary of 

1. \\ Jiere is the zone 01 service. c . 

Steps m 

Surface 

(6) Classification of Form. Enrichment 

1. Is the object fiat, shallow and circular, low and cylindrical, 

high and cylindrical? 

(c) Placing the Zone of Enrichment. 

1. Is the enrichment to he seen from above or from the side? See 
Figure 400a. 

2. What point of the structure suggested by the form needs 
surface enrichment? Is il the primary mass, appendages, terminals, 
links, or details? Let the area selected become the zone of enrichment. 

(d) Amount of Enrichment. 

1. Will the enrichment cover the full surface, part surface (center 
or margin), or accented outline? 

(e) Location of Inceptive Axis. 

1. Is the zone of enrichment associated with a square, rectangle, 
hexagon, or irregularly shaped flat plane, circular or cylindrical 
surface? Figure 470. 

2. How should the inceptive axis be placed in the zone of 
enrichment to harmonize with the structural forms suggested by 
1 (e) and the point from which it is viewed 1 (e)? See the violation 
of this latter point in Figure 439. Presumably this inceptive axis 
will be a vertical center line, horizontal center line, diagonal, diameter, 
radius, the element of a cylinder, or a dynamic curve for a free border. 

(/) Point of Concentration. 

1. Where should the point of concentration be located upon Surface 
the inceptive axis? Enrichment 

(g) Unison of Enrichment and Materials. 

1. What decorative process will be adaptable to service, the 
material, and the contemplated design? 



18-2 



SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY HA5SE5 IN . BASE HCTALS 
• TREATMENT OF FLAT AND SEMI "FLAT SURFACE'S * 




COUeTES-T OP SCHOOL. AETS MftGftimE 

FIG • 407 • I • 4 • 



FIG-408-FI6-4-09- 
nAIMLY TEEMirtAL EriEiairiEMT • 



FIG -410 -4-- 




jMiMMwtmmmmmm m 
FIG -411- 1-3 



Fl6-4l£-3- * 



'If' 



FIG 





FI6-4I3- 3 






/ 'QUEvVriOriA&LE' 

FIG « 4 IS- PEACOCK WHYE APPLIED £• 




.T.iA 



f*lmMs 



~-<A 



FIG -415 



Plate 59 



Courtesy of P. and F. Corbin 



[ 133 ] 

(/?) Type of Units. 

1. What design units are suited to the process selected in (</), g , 

appropriate to the texture and structural lines of the form to be steps in 
enriched and to its ultimate service? Choice may be made from Surface 
nature, geometric pattern, or historic ornament. Enrichment 

The above points may all be thought out. Now, with some assur- 
ance, the designer may take his pencil and begin to draw the units 
in their proper position upon or about the inceptive axis with the 
point of concentration correctly placed in position in the inceptive 
axis. Rules and suggestions for this execution have been previously 
a'iven. 



(/) Designing of the Units. 

1. How should the units be drawn to be in harmony with the 
inceptive axis, the contours, and to each other? 

The above points of approach to surface enrichment represent 
a logical reasoning process which supplies a line of sequential and 
developmental pictures that will reduce to a minimum the element 
of doubt and fog through which the average designer approaches 
his problem. The steps will, in time, become practically automatic 
and may be thought out in a surprisingly short period of time. 

Rule lie. The type of design unit for large masses should be bolder 
than similar designs for small primary masses. 

As may be expected from briefly considering the illustrations for 
this chapter as compared with those for small primary masses. 
Chapter XIII, it is seen that the units for base and precious metals 
are larger and bolder than those used for smaller masses. The more 
effective designs arc those whose appropriateness, simplicity, and Treatment 
correct structural proportions and relations appeal to our sense of 
fitness and beauty. 

Figures 40.3, 404, and 40(5 are composed of projects designed 
mainly on vertical inceptive axes or center lines. The freely balanced 
natural units in Figure 403 have the zone of enrichment in the upper 
portion of the appendage (handles), and the point of concentration 
in the upper portion of I he zone of en rich men I. Formal symmetrical 
balance controls the placing of enrichment in Figure 404. Initial 
letters, through lack of consideration of design principles, are fre- 



Large 

Masses and 
Their 



184 



SUEFACF EHEICHnehT OF LAfcGE: PRIMARY HA55E5 IM BASE riETAL 
• TK.EATM&MT OF FLAT PLAMCS IN CAST BfcONZlF • 



LACK. OF EELATlOrt 
BETWEEN STKUCTUEAL 
AXIS AND ORNAMENT 





Fl0r4\9- EMEICH- 
n&hT VIOLATING 
EOLE 1 OF SEEYICe 



FIC-, -417 



FIG-418 




FIG -423- FIG -424- 

AOCfMTCD COMTOUC ACCEriTED' COTITOUe 



Pi 

r m 


« 





FI&-428' 
GOTHIC 



FIG -429- 
FRENCH RENAIS5AMCE 




FIG-4Z.Q 



WT" ■ H 



FIG -425 
GtEFFKL 



FIG -430 
LOLM5 AlY 




FIG- 421 -VIOLATION FIG-4ZZ- APPEOP- 
OF APPRDPRlATEnfSS El ATE OeriAMENT 



vffifr 



>OsSEjhJB , L<*' 



FIG -426- 
BYZAHTIME 



FI6-43I- 
empire 



FIG-4ZT- 

MooeisH 




FIG»43Z< 

FLEMISH 



Plate GO 



Z>oor Plates, Courtesy of P. and F. Corbin 



[ 18.3 ] 

qucntly misplaced on masses with little or no consideration given 

to their mass relations with the structural contours. As a contrast Lar S e Flat 

to this, notice the carefully considered relations between the letter _ , _ , 
TI7 ' . . * i-i • flat Surfaces 

\\ on the tea strainer m Figure 404 and its adaptation to the con- i n p re cious 

tours of the appendage. The stone enrichment on the handle of Metal, 

the paper cutter in Figure 404 in no way interferes with its use as a Plate 58 

cutter and is therefore appropriate as surface enrichment. 

The pierced enrichment of the silver box in Figure 405 contains 
vertical and horizontal lines which bring the decorative human 
figures into harmonious relation with the structural contours. Figure 
40G shows both formal and free balance with center and full surface 
zones of enrichment. C and D could have been improved by a 
more strongly marked point of concentration which would have 
added more character to the designs. 

In Chapter VII 1, the contour terminal enrichment problem was 

described at some length. Many illustrations on Plates 58, 59, and 

GO are, in a wav, similar in their tvpe of surface decoration, which is _ . _ . 
• -7 mi i- Semi-flat 

termed surjaec terminal enrichment. J lie "happy ending men- Surfaces in 

tioned in Chapter YIII as a suitable means of terminating the contour Base Metal, 

of a long primary mass or appendage may be similarly treated by Plate 59 

suitable surface enrichment, particularly shown in Figures 40.'>, 404, 

407, 408, 409, and 410. The terminal is quite common as a zone 

of enrichment. 

It is readily seen that when surface enrichment is the prevailing 

decorative theme it becomes necessary to subordinate contour 

enrichment to it, Rule 10b, otherwise the strife for dominance 

arising between these two forms of enrichment will lead to poor and _ 

i • ^- iti -i • Contour 

ornate design, rigure 417. Whatever contour enrichment is used y crsus 

must be chosen to accord with the surface enrichment. Rule 10d, as Surface 
noted in the preceding figures and in Figure 411. Mere we find the Enrichment 
closest connection, as the chased forms of the surface at many points 
merge into the contour. Thus surface and contour are bound to- 
gether in unity with the surface enrichment, which maintains its 
dominance I liroughoul . 

The .simple and dignified treatment of the fhv set in Figure 41.') 
is synonymous with the finest type of enrichment for service and 
beauty, Rule lib. The peacock motives of Figures H t and 415 



180 



Surface 
Enrichment 
of Hardware, 
Plate 60 



Historic 
Ornament 
Applied to 
Period Hard- 
ware Design 
Door Plates 



are applied to the desk set. The motives as used in this case are 
generally well adapted to their respective areas and inceptive axes. 

Rule 1 If. Repulsive forms should not be introduced into surface 
enrichment. 

Figure 417 is a typical example of over-ornamentation with the 
surface and contour enrichment struggling in deadly conflict for 
prominence. In the combat, the natural structural axis has been 
totally neglected for irrelevant and disconnected ornament. Figure 
41S illustrates correctly related surface ornament, with a dominance 
of the latter form, Rule 10b. Figure 419 represents a type of dec- 
oration presumably roughened to meet the needs of service. It 
proves, however, to be unpleasant to the touch and unnecessary as 
the plain knob is preferable in every way. The naturalistic snake 
motive of Figure 421 is repulsive to many people; this and similar 
decorative motives should be avoided in preference to the more 
conventionalized pattern of Figure 422, Rule llf. 

Rule lie. Tiro periods of historic ornament should not be introduced 
into the same design. 

It is impossible to close these chapters without reference to the 
influence of the great schools of architectural history upon contem- 
porary design. There is a growing tendency for manufacturers to 
use period patterns in house decorations which correspond to the 
design of the building. A Colonial building frequently calls for 
Colonial hardware, a Gothic church for corresponding surface enrich- 
ment of that period. 

As introductory illustrations, Figure 423 stands as a simple 
example of accented (beveled) contour while Figure 424 has been 
accented with reminiscent moulding appropriate to Colonial archi- 
tecture. They might, however, be used with many simply designed 
articles of furniture. From this slight indication or portion of a 
style, we have a more pronounced beginning in Figure 425 with its 
clearly marked Greek egg and dart ornamental border. The acan- 
thus leaf of the Byzantine school, Figure 420, changes to the geometric 
arabesques of the Moorish school in Figure 427. The Gothic arch, 
cusps, and quatrefoil of Figure 428 are changed to the classic acanthus 
foliage of the French Renaissance period. Figure 429. Figures 
430 and 431 are later developments of the Renaissance. The heavily 



187 



enriched Flemish pattern completes our illustrations of the use of 
past forms of ornamentation applied to modern designs. Only a 
small number from a rapidly enlarging field of period design are 
shown. 

With circular plates and trays, the enrichment normally takes the 
form of a border (marginal enrichment), with the inceptive axes or 
center lines of the repeated units radiating from the center of the 
circle. Figures 433, 435. 430, 437, 438, and 439. An elliptical 
form frequently calls for handles and terminal enrichment as shown 
by Figure 434. 

Both Figures 437 and 438 have divided points of concentration 
and would be materially improved by the omission of the center unit 
A. The small tree used as a connecting link in the border of Figure 
437 should be reversed, as it now possesses a motion or growth con- 
trary to the larger tree units. The contour enrichment in Figure 43S 
could well be omitted or moved around to support the surface enrich- 
ment. The pierced enrichment J, Figure 439, is incorrectly used 
as it is not designed to be seen from above, the normal viewpoint 
of the tray. The design should have been based upon the horizontal 
axis of the project similar to Figure 439 at B. 

Differing from the shallow plate, with the increased height of 
the low cylindrical forms of Plate (> L 2, there now develops the possi- 
bility of enriching the sides of this class of project: a zone of enrich- 
ment not readily accessible in the shallow plate form. In addition to 
the sides there remain the appendages, quite capable of carrying 
enrichment to advantage. One should control I he zone of enrichment 
in such a manner that the attention will not be equally drawn to both 
appendage and primary mass. Two points of enrichment, both 
calling for equal attention, divide the interest in the problem, and 
cause a lack of unity or oneness. 

Rule lid. The eye should be attracted to one principal zone of 
enrichment, whether located upon the primary mass, appendaye, 
terminals, links, or details. .1// other zones should be subordinate 
to this area. 

Fnrichment upon the appendages may be found in Figures 440, 
441, 44 L 2, 445, and on the upper portion of the straight sides of the 
primary mass in Figures 443 and 444. The decorative units coin- 



Shallow 
Circular 
Forms, 
Plate 61 



Low 

Cylindrical 
Forms, 
Plate 62 



188 



suefacf. erseicHncnT of laegf peirwY masses in basf ahd peecious metal 

• TEEATMD1T OF SHALLOW C1ECULAE F0fcri5 • 




FIG • 436- 3-4- 



FIG -437 '<$• 



FIG • 438 • 3 ■ 




FIG -439- MAINLY SHALLOW CIECULAe F0er-15 



Plate Gl 



189 



SUEFACF ENKICHnEMT OP LARGE PEinA£Y nASSE5 in BASF 
AMD PEEC10U5 NFTAL ' TREATMenT OF LOV CIECULA£ T=OE.nS 





hct44o- EMEicHrnenT or appendage -o 



FIG -4-41- e 




FIG -44-Z- I • 

eneiCHnCTiT OF APPENDAGE 




FIG • 4-4-3 • l • 

ENeiCHmEhT OF PRIMARY HASS 



** 


Mb- ii-^HB 


'" v, ".j |r." . u u 't^^m 


^« 


It- &M 


X 4* 


IB 








# ,, 





ft" 




£ 




fig -444- 3- nAe&iMAL eneiciiriern" 



FICr • 4-45 • 3 - 



I 'lath (H 



190 



SUEFACE EHeiCHMErtT OF LARGE PSIMAEY MASSES in BASE AMD PRECIOUS 
. ME/TAL5 • TREATMENT OF HIGH CYLINDRICAL POEMS ■ 






FlCr-446-,3- FIG-447-7- 



PIGr-448- VERTICAL CHASED ChEICHHChT 3- 




nrx 



FIG - 449 -3- 



FIG -4-50 • MOTE THE 
FACT THAT THE EriRICH- 

neriT om base: is 

SOBOEDiriATED TO THAT 
OE THE SHADE • 



J^ 




FIG • 451 • MAINLY COMTOUE. 

enetcHnEHT 




FIG -45E- ILLUSTRATING THE "ECHOING* OF A MOTIVE 

the 5rnBouV should fiE \n the oppe£ portion of the p-rv 

Platp: G3 




191 



High 



posing the border on these straight sides are designed upon the 
vertical element of the underlying cylindrical form as the inceptive 
axis. The enrichment for the appendage is well related to the 
contour of that member and is commonly based upon the center line 
of the appendage. 

The principles of enriching these higher cylindrical forms in many 
ways closely parallel those which govern the lower cylindrical forms. 
The inceptive axes of the decoration on the two vases of Figures rTnd • i 
44G and 447 may be readily analyzed as vertical elements of the Forms 
cylinder. Figures 448 and 449 are quite rare exceptions of the accen- Plate 63 
tuation of the vertical lines of the cylinder. Horizontal bands 
similar to Figures 444 and 447 are more common interpretations of 
cylinder enrichment. Figure 450 marks a successful combination 
of two dissimilar materials with the shade (appendage) as the dom- 
inating enriched member. Rule 10c. 

The small chased bosses used as enrichment in Figure 4.5 C 2 are 
re-echoed on the several pieces of the set which binds them into 
collective unity. The top portion of the primary mass seems to need 
some form of enrichment, as the contour adds little to the beauty of 
that part. The symbol A" could have been better located by being 
moved to that place. The point of concentration should be placed 
in the upper portion of a large mass whenever that arrangement 
is possible. 

It is in every way desirable that all designs should be executed 
full size and in full accord with the requirements of a shop working 
drawing. In addition the technical rendering suggested in Chapter 
XIII should be carefully used in each drawing. 



INSTIU (TIOX SIIKET 

Plates (iS and Tii .show problems suitable for class presentation. The method 
if development is similar In that presented on Plate .V2. 



St'.MMAHY OF DESIGN STEPS 

(h) Draw a primary mass with reference to its proper grouping as follows: 
Fur flat areas draw square, rectangle, etc. 
For shallow circular forms draw a circle. 

For low cylindrical forms draw a rectangle with horizontal proportions. 
For high cylindrical forms draw a rectangle with vertical proportions. 



I ™? } 

(b) Locate zone of service. 

(c) Locate zone of enrichment: appendages, terminals, margins, full sur- 

face, etc. 

(d) Determine amount of enrichment, 
(p) Locate inceptive axes. 

(/) Place point of concentration in the inceptive axis where it traverses the 
zone of enrichment. 

(</) Select the decorative process suited to the material and contemplated 
motive. 

(/;) Draw leading lines toward the point of concentration. 

(/) Draw conventionalized design motives based upon the leading lines, con- 
verging toward the point of concentration. . Vary the contours to be 
sympathetically related to these design motives, provided such variation 
of the original primary mass is necessary to complete unity. 

(j) Add additional views, dimension, and otherwise prepare tlie drawing for 
shop use. 



SUGGESTED PROBLEM 

Design a copper nut bowl and spoon. Enrich with a chased border appro- 
priate to the subject. Enrich spoon, using fitting method of enrichment. 
The bowl and spoon should have a harmonious relation. 



SUMMARY OF RULES 

Surface Enrichment of Large Primary Masses 

Rule 11a. The preliminary steps toward surface enrichment should be 
thought out before they arc draien. 

Rule 111). Conservative application should mark the use of surface enrichment 
of large masses. Its use should: (1) lighten or soften necessarily heavy construction; 
(J) support or apparently strengthen good structure; (J) add interest to large 
ttnbrolccn and uninteresting surfaces. 

Rule lie. The type of design unit for large masses should be bolder than 
similar designs for small primary masses. 

Rule lid. The eye should be attracted to one principal zone of enrichment, 
irhether located upon the primary mass, appendage, terminal, links, or details. 
All other zones should be subordinate to this area. 

Rule lie. Two periods of historic ornament should not be introduced into the 
same design. 

Rule llf. Repulsirc forms should not be introduced into surface enrichment. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. Contrast the method of enriching large and small areas of base and precious 

metals. Illustrate. What is the character of surface enrichment for 
large areas? 

2. Name three essentials to good surface design for base and precious metals. 

Illustrate each. 



[ 193 ] 

3. Give nine steps necessary for the complete evolution of surface enrichment. 

4. Name method of classifying the structural forms of metal into four groups. 

How does this compare with the classification of clay forms? 

5. Between which two groups does the transition from a horizontal to a vertical 

primary mass occur? 
G. Is there a perceptible change in the surface enrichment paralleling this 
change in proportions of the primary mass? 

7. In which group or groups is the relation between surface and contour 

enrichment closest? 

8. Give the characteristics of surface enrichment designed for fiat or semi-Hat 

planes. 

9. State the value of the terminal as an enrichment zone. 

10. Discuss common errors in the surface enrichment of hardware and their 

correction. 

11. In what manner docs historic ornament influence industrial design? Why? 

12. Give characteristics of surface enrichment designed for, (<;) large, shallow 

circular forms; (b) large, low cylindrical forms; (c) large, high cylindrical 
forms. 

13. How does the point from which the article is to be seen affect the character 

of the design? 



Chapter XV 



COLOR: HUE, VALUE, AND CHROMA; STAINS 



Need of 

Harmonious 

Color 



Use of Color 

Systems 



Color Pig- 
ments for 
Design 
Rendering 



Application 

of 

Pigment 



In the previous chapters we have developed problems dealing 
with proportions, contours, and surface enrichment. The use of 
color, particularly in surface enrichment, is equally important 
inasmuch as its use is often necessary to bring the project, as for 
example a piece of furniture, into harmony with the surroundings 
which furnish its final color environment. The incorrect use of color 
may seriously mar a project otherwise correctly designed in line and 
form, and may also weaken its influence in a particular setting. 

While there are a number of excellent systems of color notation, 
it is well to bear in mind that a color system, however excellent, is a 
good servant but a poor master. It is nevertheless considered as 
essential to have a definite knowledge of some systematically devel- 
oped color system in order that we may methodically apply color 
to the structural form with some degree of certainty. 

For rendering drawings of problems involving the use of color 
it is suggested that the beginner use the tempera, or opaque colors 
now on the market. These colors readily adapt themselves to the 
average problem, while their rich hues are more successful than those 
produced from the ordinary water colors. Tubes of cobalt blue, 
ultramarine, light chrome yellow, vermilion, emerald green, crimson 
madder, black, and white will serve to solve the problems demanded 
by this chapter. 

White is used to lighten and black to darken the pigments, which 
should be mixed with water to the consistency of cream, and applied 
to cover well the surface of the paper. One should guard against 
a thin, transparent wash, as the desired effect is a velvety opaque 
and evenly tinted surface only possible with the thick application 
of color. The pigment will dry out about one-quarter lighter than 
when first applied. The usual school color box of three pigments is 
useful for rendering wood stains. These pigments may be used in 

f io-H 



195 



thin flat washes and will exhibit a transparent effect analogous to the 
effect of a wood stain. The natural color of wood may be first 
represented and, when dry, followed by a second thin wash of the 
hue of the wood stain. 

Lacking as we are in a definite color nomenclature or standards, 
it now becomes necessary to describe the processes and define the 
terms necessary to the designer. 

live is the technical name for color; a change of color means a 
change of hue. For the designer's purposes we will select twelve 
equally graded colors or hues from the spectrum and term them 
standard hues. Each hue will have twenty-seven modifications or 
gradations, which is a sufficient number for our purpose. These 
gradations are to be graphically recorded by and contained in a 
diagram to be known as a hue rectangle. There are twelve of these 
rectangles, one for each of the selected hues, and they are found 
arranged in sequence in Figure 454. 

By referring to Figure 4.55, it is seen that the twelve selected 
standard hues are represented at what is termed full chromatic 
intensity, which, to the designer, means hues of the full strength of his 
color pigment. This is far short of the true color intensity of the 
spectrum, but for industrial arts purposes these lines are strong 
enough to serve as standards for comparison and classification. 
The hues should be evenly graded from red at the left to red violet 
at the right without noticeable unevenness in the gradations. Red 
violet is the link which connects the right end with the left, thus 
completing the circuit of the twelve lines. The following pigment 
table gives name and svmbol of various lines. 



Rendering of 
Wood Stains 



Hue and 

Hue 

Rectangles 



Standard 
Hues 



HI'ES 


PIGMENTS 


V 


ALl'ES 


SYMBOLS 


Bed 


Pure crimson madder 


High . 


lark 


K-Ill) 


Orange red 


Crimson madder ami vermilion 


Mi.ldl 


L" . . . 


OIJ-M 


Orange. 


Vermilion and liglil chrome yellow. . . 


bow Ii 


ght. 


O-LL 


( )range yellow 


Vermilion and liglil chrome yellow. . . 


bight 




OY-L 


Yellow... 


Pure light chrome yellow . . . . 


nigh 


ighl 


V-IIL 


Yellow green 


Light chrome yellow and emerald green 


bigiu 




YO-L 


Green . . 


Pure emerald green 


I-OW 1 


glil 


O-LL 


Green blue 


Emerald green and cohalt bine 


Mi.ldl 


■ 


GB-M 


lilne 


Pure cobalt blue. . . . 


Nigh < 


lark 


B-IID 


IJIne violet. 


Ill ni marine and crimson madder. 


Dark 




BV-I> 


Violel 


I'llr.'i marine and crimson madder. 


bow d 


ark 


V-LD 


lied violet 


I'll ramariiic and criniMiii madder. 


Dark. 




KV-I) 



Full 

Chromatic 

Intensity 



Approximate 
Related 
Standard 
Hues 



196 



Locating 
Standard 
Hues 



Values and 
Horizontal 
Value Lines 



Relation of 
the Standard 
Hue to the 
Hue Rec- 
tangle 



Tints 



It now becomes imperative to locate each standard hue at its 
definite place in each rectangle. This invariably occurs at a pre- 
determined point in the left vertical boundary of the rectangle of 
that hue. From inspection of Figure 455, it is quickly seen that 
violet seems to be the darkest hue; yellow the lightest, with the 
others between these hues. This variation of what is termed their 
value gives us a guide to their proper placing in the hue rectangle. 

Value is that quality by which wc may distinguish a dark hue 
from a light one. For design purposes we will imagine the hue 
rectangle to grade from white at the top to black at the bottom. 
We will draw horizontal lines or steps across the rectangle, marking 
nine even value steps from white to black; the top one to be termed 
White (W), followed by High Light (IIL); Light (L); Low Light 
(LL); Middle (M); High Dark (IID); Dark (D>; Low Dark (LD); 
and Black (B). These value steps may be thought of as a scale of 
gray or neutral values descending the right boundary of the hue rect- 
angle. They have been roughly indicated in the hue rectangle at 
the left of Figure 454. 

Each standard hue may now be located in the left boundary 
of its hue rectangle and opposite its neutral gray equivalent in the 
right boundary. If the standard hue is accurately determined by 
the designer, it will be of exactly the same value as its gray equivalent 
given in the u value" column of the pigment table. The small arrows 
leading from Figure 455 to 454 show where four standard hues are 
located; the remaining hues are located in the left circle of each suc- 
cessive row in the remaining rectangles, and upon their respective 
value lines. Standard hues are expressed by the symbols in the 
right column of the pigment tabic. 

Each standard pigment or hue may be thinned with opaque 
white to lighten it, forming what is known as a tint of that hue. 
Red, in Figure 454, reaching its full chromatic intensity at the value 
High Dark, may be lightened four times before it ultimately arrives 
at white. Each step is to be considered as occurring in the left hand 
boundary of the rectangle above the standard hue, and is to be 
recorded by the symbols, R-M: R-LL : R-L ; R-IIL. Orange yellow 
has only one possible tint. Strawberry, light lavender, rose, etc., 
are merely nicknames for various tints. 




x~ 


























*— 


1 


i 







s 




^s_ 




, ? 






1 1 % 


I I 1 1 



1!)' 



Each standard hue may be darkened by the application of 
black, thus forming shades of that hue. Red is capable of producing Shades 
two shades, R-D and R-LD, which are placed in the left boundary 
of the hue rectangle below the standard hue. Browns, russets, and 
dark tans are shades of different hues. 

These modifications of the standard hues into tints and shades 
give to the designer simple variations of his too brilliant standards. 
But even these modifications are not sufficiently grayed for staining 
or painting large wood or wall surfaces. There is a brilliancy and 
glare about certain tints which require modification. The shades 
are safer for use on large areas. The remaining space in the interior 
of the hue rectangle is to be devoted to the last gradation of the 
standard hue. 

Chroma is the strength of a color. It is the quality by which we 
distinguish a strong color from a weak one. The standard hue is Chroma 
approximately full chromatic intensity. Likewise each tint and 
shade is considered to be of its full chromatic intensity, making the 
left-hand boundary of the rectangle the area of full chroma. 

From this boundary, each tint, standard, and shade jades out or 
loses chroma until the right boundary of the rectangle is reached. In 
this boundary each tint, standard, and shade has faded out of its gray 
equivalent, but without changing its original value; in other words it 
has traveled along its horizontal value line to a complete grayness. 
The right-hand boundary of the rectangle may then be represented 
by a gray value scale of nine steps, including white and black. 

It becomes necessary to record at regular intervals, this loss of 
chroma. For this purpose, we have cut the hue rectangle 4 by three vertical 
vertical lines. The first vertical line from the left boundary of the Chroma 
rectangle marks the position where the standard with its tints and Lines 
shades have been grayed to the point where only three-fourths of 
the original of hue remains. Similarly, the center and right vertical 
lines mark the points where one-half and one-fourth, respectively, 
of the color have been retained. These losses of chroma are recorded 
by similar fractions. With possible modifications of value and 
chroma each hue now has twenty-seven possible changes. 

The full hue title or symbol may now be written as follows: 
(1) hue name, ( L 2) amount of chroma, (.S) value. Examples: GB 



19S 



Full Hue 
Symbols 



rechnical 
Practice 



iVarm and 
3old Colors 



Scales of 
3olor 



.Vood Stains 



Basic 

Primary 

lues 



jD-V^HL. We are now in a position to write whatever color we 
may have in mind and another person will understand it, provided 
the other person adopts our standard. Through the teachings of 
Dr. D. W. Ross, Mr. A. H. Munsell, and others, the symbols and 
standards are now quite generally understood and have, in a slightly 
modified form been accepted in several standard color industries. 

To familiarize oneself with the mixing of the various hues, 
it is excellent practice to form a vertical gray scale of the three- 
quarter-inch squares. There should be nine steps from white to 
black: an enlarged duplication of the right boundary of the hue 
rectangle. The warm standard hues at their full standard inten- 
sities; RY-R-OR-O-OY-Y, may be formed and placed opposite 
their gray equivalents on the left side of the gray scale, while the 
remaining or cold colors may be similarly placed with relation to the 
gray scale but upon the right of it. 

A vertical scale of tints and shades of one of the hues, duplicating 
the left side of the rectangle gives the character of the tints and shades. 
One shade and one tint should then be carried along a horizontal 
value line through three steps of loss of chroma to complete grayness, 
but without change of the original value. Yellow, by the addition 
of black becomes a false greenish shade which may be corrected by the 
addition of a small amount of vermilion. 

A large percentage of natural wood hues are to be found between 
the hue rectangles, Red-Orange, Y^ellow and Green, or in the warm 
portion of the spectrum. As a wood stain must blend harmoniously 
with the natural wood color, it is reasonable to expect the best results 
from stains with a predominance of warm hues or warm grays in 
their composition. 

It is possible to duplicate nearly all the twelve standard hues of 
Figure 455 with mixtures of the three so-called primary hues of red, 
yellow, and blue. It makes a fairly approximate scale which is, 
however, not sufficiently accurate for standardizing purposes. 
The scale is formed by mixing red and yellow in varying proportions 
for the intermediate hues of orange, yellow, and blue for the greens, 
and blue and red for the violets. This practice of mixing three pri- 
mary colors together serves as an important step, governing wood 
slain mixing for beginners. 



[199] 

Developing this idea further, we may select aniline brilliant 
scarlet as approximating red; metanil yellow, approximating yellow; T , 
and acid green as a substitute for blue. These stains are shown in B as { c 
the top portion of Figure 4o(>. By comparison with Figure 45,5, Aniline Wood 
scarlet is found to be orange red; metanil yellow, orange, and acid Dyes 
green to be true standard green. These basic stains have been 
located in their proper positions with regard to their hue, value, and 
chroma. Their positions are located by the large circles in the hue 
diagrams of Figure 4,5 (J. 

These stains are modified and reduced in chroma and value by 
mixing them with nigrosene black, an aniline dye of blue black Wood Stain 
appearance, which fills all the needs of an ivory black in water or oil Mixing 
color pigment. AYith these four stains, almost any commercial stain 
may be duplicated. Aniline dye for water stains readily dissolves 
in water while a special aniline for oil staining is first cut with naphtha. 

Dark mahogany stain in Figure 4.56 is orange red, fHD, and is 
indicated by the circle A in the same figure. To duplicate this stain j) ar k 
we have as the nearest base stain, brilliant scarlet, which corresponds Mahogany 
to orange red. This is placed at its full intensity in the circle OR Stain 
on the middle horizontal value line. To duplicate dark mahogany 
stain it will be necessary to reduce in value a strong solution of 
brilliant scarlet, slightly more than one horizontal value step, by the 
addition of nigrosene. We shall then add a small amount of some 
thinning medium, oil or water, to reduce slightly the slain in chroma. 

Flemish oak stain is orange JD. This calls for a mixture of 
metanil yellow and brilliant scarlet aniline to form the orange hue. Flemish 
We must then add nigrosene to reduce tin 1 value to 1), and add a small Oak Stain 
amount of thinner to produce the necessary reduction in chroma. 

This is commonly produced by fuming the wood with ammonia. 
The hue may however be closely duplicated by a mixture of brilliant Fumed 
scarlet, metanil yellow, and nigrosene. It is practically the same Oak Stain 
as Flemish oak, but possesses one-quarter more color as can be seen 
on the orange hue rectangle. 

The circle I) shows this stain to be slightly below yellow green, 
;]M, in value and chroma. The hue rectangle containing it is nearer 0Uve Green 
the green than the orange yellow rectangle; hence in mixing the stain 
stain we should keep the green hue dominant by adding more of it 



200 



Light 

Weathered 
Oak Stain 



Color 

Changes of 
the Stain 



than of metanil yellow. As in other stains, nigrosene is added to 
reduce the full chromatic intensities of the aniline to the proper 
value and chroma of olive green stain. 

This stain is practically blue, |M, and is formed by thinning 
nigrosene to the proper value. 

Aniline dyes are apt to fade if exposed to full sunlight. There 
are, however, certain preventives that are beyond the scope of this 
book to treat in detail. The natural color of the wood is inclined 
to make a stain warmer than when originally mixed. This should 
be allowed for. Wood filler, the wood grain, porosity, qualities, and 
hue of the wood, all influence the final value of the stain. It fre- 
quently becomes darker in value as may be seen by comparing Fig- 
ure 456 and Figures 458 to 461. It is good policy to test the stain 
upon different woods to observe the final effect. The tests may be 
kept for future reference. 

It is readily seen from the few examples in Figure 456 that, with 
the three basic stains, almost any other stains may be produced, 
thus affording a broad field for harmonious selection and adaptation 
to the environment. The next chapters will take up the question of 
color harmony and its application to wood, wall surfaces, clay, and 
metal. 

SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 

See paragraph upon "Technical Practice" in this chapter, page 198. 
REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. What pigments are best adapted to rendering design problems? What 

pigments are particularly adapted to the rendering of wood stains? How 
should each be applied? 

2. What are standard hues? Why do we need standards of hue? 

3. Define the term values. 

4. What are tints and shades? 

5. Define fully the term chroma. 

0. Bound the hue rectangle and trace the value and chroma changes occurring 
on its vertical and horizontal lines. 

7. Locate in its proper hue rectangle (Figure 455) the following hues: OY 

fUD; YG-iLL; RVfAI; YL. 

8. Name the three primary hues. How may an approximate scale of twelve 

hues be prepared from them? 

9. Name the three basic aniline wood dyes and give their relation to the three 

primary hues. What is the practical use of nigrosene in stain mixing? 

10. Give the symbol and explain the method of mixing Flemish oak wood stain. 

Name and explain the method of mixing two others. 

11. How docs its application to wood effect the color and value of aniline stain? 



Chapter XVI 

COLOR AND ITS RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN 

Large Surfaces of Wood; Wall and Ceiling Areas 

In the preceding chapter, the classification and standardization 
of color were emphasized as preliminary to the study of color harmony. Color 
Color harmony is obtained by the proper balancing" of value, hue, and Harmony 
chroma upon a surface or surfaces to give a pleasing reaction to the 
eye, and through the eye to the intellect. 

We are now ready to familiarize ourselves with the specific appli- 
cations of these factors to practical design problems. Too many 
pieces of furniture are stained with no thought as to the final adap- 
tation in the school or home. This is not wise, either from the stand- 
point of a complete educative process or of good taste. Figures 
4.58, 459, 460, 461, show stains of Plate 04 applied to wood. Two 
new stains have been added, sage green and silver gray. These six 
stains are representative ones and act as a typical data for study 
of color harmony. 

Furniture— Trim — Side Walls — Ci;i lings 

The side walls of a room form the background for furniture; 
trim, wall brackets, and similarly related objects; therefore the Backgrounds 
closest relation and harmony should be maintained between them. 

The wood stains 3, (J, 1), W, 15, and 18, Plate (>5, as tiny appear 
on various kinds of wood are, in part, duplicates of the unapplied Value Range 
stains of Plate (54, Figure 45(i. The ell'ect of the wood has changed f Wood 
their value's and in some instances their color as can be seen by com- Stains 
paring the two plates. Their neir relations have been plotted on the 
hue rectangles of Figure 457, Plate (55, and the results joined by a 
doited line. The circles in the diagrams contain cross reference 
figures in order that the stains may be traced without difficulty. 

[•in] 1 



[ «20«2 



Value Range 
of Side Walls 



Value Range 
of Ceilings 



Value Range 
of Side Walls 
and Wood 
Work 



The highest value is near middle (18), and the lowest is low dark (0), 
showing a value range of four steps. 

The side walls, taken from well-known wall tint catalogs have 
been similarly plotted in Figure 457, and the results joined together 
by a heavy black line. The lightest value is light (11), and the dark- 
est is middle value (14), an average range of three steps slightly 
above middle value. 

Ceilings are the lightest of the surfaces considered. Their 
range is from slightly below white (10), to light (16), a range of two 
values. From the results, as plotted in Figure 457, it is seen that 
there is a tendency to keep the ceilings within a close range of values. 
The results have been joined together by means of a double black 
line. There are exceptions to these results, but it is quite safe to 
keep well within the suggested range for harmonious results. We 
may now draw the following rules as a result of an empirical method 
of deduction. 

Rule 12a. An average wood stain is to be retained between the 
values middle and low dark. 

Rule 12b. An average wall hue is to be retained between the values 
light and middle. 

Rule l€c. An average ceiling hue is to be retained between the 
values white (minus) and light. 

Averaging the value range between the wood work which includes 
the furniture, trim, and the side walls of Figures 458, 459, 400, 401, 
402, and 403, we find that the range varies from five values in Figures 
459 to slightly more than one in Figure 403. As the side walls and 
furniture are to be regarded as unobtrusive settings for pictures and 
people it is well to be very conservative with the use of values. A 
wide range of values will cause a lack of unity. In this respect 
Figure 459 may be regarded as approaching the extreme limit of 
contrasts of value compatible with good taste. Let us, therefore, 
limit the value range to four values, as, for example: low light for 
side walls and dark for stain. 

Rule 12d. The relation between the side walls and furniture, 
trim, etc., should be retained loithin the range of four values or less, as 
low light and dark. 



£03 



The ceiling and side walls in Figure 459 are four values apart 



Value Range 



and in Figure 4G3 this has been reduced to a one-value step. There of gide 
seems to be a common average of three values as an acceptable and Walls and 
agreeable contrast. For dark rooms this would well be increased. Ceilings 
For rooms with light side walls the contrast would be considerably 
lessened. 

Rule 12e. The relation between side walls and eeiling should be 
within the range of three rallies or less, as high light and tow light. 



Hue Groupings 



A wood stain should be closely related to the natural color of the 
wood. As this is usually a warm color we naturally find most of the 
wood stains included between the red and the yellow hue rectangles, 
inclusive of red and yellow green. "Walnut then may be stained a 
deep shade of orange or red, but would not be adapted to a blue green 
stain. This arbitrary but wide range of hues of stained wood nat- 
urally affects the hue of the side walls. The plotting of the hues for 
the side walls, Figure 4.57, shows a close relation to the hues of the 1 
stain to the wall. In no instance do we find the hue rectangle of the 
wood work more than three hues away from that of the walls. In 
four instances they are within two hue rectangles of each other and in 
one instance they are both within I he same rectangle. This develops 
the fact that analogous or neighboring groupings of hues prevail in 
relating the hues of wood work and side walls. 

An analogous group of hues is an arrangement based upon a 
selection of tints and shades within three rectangles of eaeli other, as 
orange and yellow. These harmonize because yellow is mixed with 
and becomes a hue common to both. "While the analogous arrange- 
ment of hues seems to be most commonly used, and with a result that 
seems to justify its adoption into general practice 1 , there are other 
arrangements that are pleasing to the eye. 

Figure 4.">8 illustrates what is commonly known as a contrasted 
grouping or arrangement of hues. It consists of the lints or shades 
of one or more hues and gray. It is the basis of color harmony 
between silver and semi-precious stones. If two hues are used, one 
of them should be reduced in chroma to nearlv grav. 



Hue Range 
for Wood 
Work and 
Walls 



Analogous 
Hues 



Contrasted 
Hues 



204 



Dominant 
Hue 



Special 
Arrangements 



Hue Range 
for Side 
Walls and 
Ceilings 



Range of 
Chroma 
for Stains 



Figure 4G3 is typical of still another form of positive hue group- 
ing. By consulting the yellow hue rectangle of Figure 457 it is noted 
that the wood work, side walls, and ceiling of Figure 463 are all con- 
tained in one rectangle. This classes this color scheme as an example 
of dominant arrangement which may be simply defined as the tints 
and shades of one hue. The arrangement does not have the variety 
supplied by analogous grouping, introducing as it does, two hues from 
different rectangles, but for large surfaces dominant grouping is a 
conservative and safe arrangement. Its tendency toward monotony 
should be guarded against by the introduction of some object high 
in chroma in the room decorative scheme. A bright colored vase 
will accomplish this successfully. Rule l c 2o, Chapter XVII. 

Rule l#f. Color schemes for wood work and side walls should 
preferably be selected from one of the following groupings: analogous, 
contrasted, or dominant arrangements of hues. Analogous grouping is 
preferable where variety of hue is desirable. 

The above rule is not to be taken as arbitrary. In the hands 
of competent designers attractive color schemes are developed 
that differ materially from the above suggestions. But, for the 
usual home setting, the above arrangement may be regarded as 
satisfactory, and is given with the idea of bringing the school shop 
work and the home environment into closer color harmony. A 
specimen of special arrangement is given by the Circle 3 A. This is 
delft blue, which harmonizes with dark mahogany in a satisfactory 
manner. 

In adjusting the hues for side walls and ceilings, the relations 
should be of the closest. The plotting of ceiling hues in Figure 457 
shows a strong tendency for the ceiling to be colored with a tint of 
the side walls (dominant arrangement), or by a tint selected from the 
next rectangle (analogous arrangement). Yellow or yellow-green, 
very light and much reduced in chroma, seems to be the almost 
universal custom. This is due to the strongly light reflecting qualities 
of yellow. 

Rule 12g. Ceilings should be colored by a lighter tint of the side 
tvalls or by a lighter tint of an analogous hue. 

Stains, as they occupy a comparatively limited area in the room 
color scheme, are of their full chroma value or reduced to three- 



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205 



Range of 
Chroma for 
Walls 



fourths chroma. In only one instance (18), Figure 463, do we find Range of 
a reduction to one-fourth chroma, demanded by the nearly gray Chroma 
color scheme of the walls. We find it to be an established fact that f° r Stain 
small areas are capable of enrichment by colors of greater purity 
and higher chroma than larger surfaces. A silver pin may be designed 
to contain a stone of high brilliancy, but a wall surface has to be ma- 
terially reduced in chroma to possess color harmony. 

Rule l c 2h. Stains arc usually not reduced to bcloic three-fourths 
chromatic intensity. X early gray side walls, howcrcr, call for a reduc- 
tion to one-fourth intensity. 

As the walls occupy a large proportionate area of the color 
scheme of the room we find it necessary to reduce them in chroma in 
order to soften the glare of too brilliant colors. Figure 4.57 shows 
only one instance (14) of a hue unreduced in chroma. It is retained 
at the full chroma for that value on account of the brightness of the 
sage green wood stain. The other hues represented in the diagram 
are grayed or reduced in chroma from three-fourths to less than one- 
fourth, or to nearly neutral gray. 

Rule l c 2i. Wall colors arc usually reduced to three-fourths chroma 
to a minimum reduction of .slightly less titan one-fourth chroma. 

The same tendency toward chromatic reduction is to be seen in ceil- 
ings, although we have two examples in Figure 457 (10 and 13) of nearly R ange of 
white and high light ceilings that have not been reduced. To avoid Chroma 
crudity a reduction in chroma by the addition of gray is to be desired, for Ceilings 

Rule l l 2j. Ceilings should usually be reduced in chroma to three- 
fourths intensity with slightly less than one-fourth chroma as a minimum 
reduction. 

With a single exception (3A). the stains and wall lints have 
been selected between and including the red and green rectangles. Summary 
This is customary and gives safe hue range as it insures tin 1 
retention of wall and ceiling hues in unified conformity with the warm 
tints of the natural wood and its equally dark lined stains. 

The following is a list of dry colors which may be purchased at a 
paint or hardware store for a few cents a pound. It is suggested Wall and 
for the designer or craftsman who desires to tint his own wall or Ceiling 
ceiling. While oil paint is to be preferred, these colors are readily Pigments 
and quickly applied and form serviceable backgrounds. 



20G 



The pigments arc white, yellow ochre, chrome yellow light, 
chrome yellow medium, and chrome yellow dark, burnt and raw 
sienna, turkey and raw umber, ultramarine and ivory black. The 
greens arc preferably mixed by adding ultramarine to one of the 
chromes. Shades are formed by the addition of the siennas, umbers, 
or black. Black and white, mixed to a gray, are useful in reducing 
the chroma of a hue. The stains should be mixed with hot water 
and a small amount of glue for a binder. White occasionally comes 
prepared with glue in its composition. 

While this chapter has emphasized the transparent finish for 
wood treatment, as a method best fitted for woods with a distinct 
grain, it is realized that oil painting of wood surfaces has a distinct 
and important part to play in the interior decorative scheme of a 
room. This latter method is adapted to soft woods without a strongly 
marked grained surface. The warm lined rectangle of the spectrum: 
red, orange, and yellow with their associated hues, which are so inti- 
mately connected with the natural wood colors and their stains, no 
longer stand as a limiting factor in controlling the color of the wood or 
the side walls. The opaque nature of oil paints allows us to disregard 
the color of the wood, and thus select any hue of oil paint which har- 
monizes with the walls and decorative scheme of the room. The 
rules stated herein are equally applicable to opaque colors. It may 
be necessary to reduce oil paints in chroma beyond the point indicated 
in Rule 12h. 

While it is not within the scope of this chapter to enter into a 
complete discussion of the subject of interior decoration, the following 
suggestions are considered as applying to our subject: viz., the 
surface enrichment of large areas. Complete color harmony in 
interior decoration generally demands the presence of the three so- 
called primary hues: red, yellow, and blue, in some form in the wall 
color scheme. While this is not always possible, two may be intro- 
duced as follows. 

The light from the north, northeast, or northwest is cold blue, 
supplying blue in the decorative scheme of three primary colors: 
blue, red, and yellow. The wall tints should then be composed of 
combinations of red and yellow, the remaining primaries. These 
may be applied to the walls by means of tints of yellow and orange 



[ 207 ] 

reduced in chroma, or shades of orange and orange-red. No greens 
or blues should be used. 

The light from the south, southeast, and southwest supplies 
plenty of yellow. It is, then, necessary to add the remaining prim- Southern 
aries or at least one of them in the form of gray-blue, orange, or Exposure 
orange-yellow, reduced to one-fourth chroma and practically to 
neutrality or grayish-reds and greens, well reduced in chroma. Any 
line strongly yellow should be avoided. 

Certain hues materially affect the apparent size of a room. If 

the room is small certain values and hues will make it appear much „„, 

Effects of 
smaller. Dark values, as a rule, make the room look smaller by Hue uoon 

seemingly drawing the walls closer together. Red contracts the Apparent 

apparent size of a room, while yellow and blue expand it. Green Size 

and shades of yellow and red-orange, if not too dark, have little effect 

upon the apparent size of a room. 

SUMMARY OF DFS1GX STEPS 

(a) Determine, by its exposure, the kind of light the room receives. 

(b) Choose a hue for the walls embodying one or both of the primary hues not 

represented by this daylight. 

(c) Select a value and chroma for this hue in accordance with Rules 12b and 12i. 
((/) Select a hue, value, and chroma for the ceiling in accordance with Rules 

12g, 12e, and 12j. 
(c) Select the correct hue, value, and chroma for paint or stain for the wood 
work in accordance with Rule* I2f, 12a, and 12h. 

SUGGFSTFD PROHFFMS 

Develop the color scheme lor the walls, ceiling, and wood work of a room 
with a northern exposure; southern exposure. Mix the stain for a piece of 
oak to harmonize with the wood work and walls of the living room of your home. 

Determine the wall tints to harmonize with dark weathered oak. Mix 
them from dry colors. 

SFMMARY OF RIFFS 

Rule 12a, An ureruge wood stain in to be retained bit wee n the values middle 
and loir dark. 

Ride 12b. An average trail fine is to be retained betteeen the values light 
and middle. 

Rule 12e. An average ceiling hue is to be retained betteeen the values white 
(minus) and light. 

Rule 12d. The relation betteeen the side trails and furniture, trim, etc., 
should be retained within the range of Jour values or less, as low light and dark. 



[ 308 ] 

Rule lie. The relation between the side walls and ceiling should be within 
the range of three values or less, as high light and low light. 

Rule 14f. Color schemes for wood work' and side walls should preferably 
be selected from one of the following groupings: analogous, contrasted, or dominant 
arrangements of hues. Analogous grouping is preferable where variety of hue is 
desirable. 

Rule 12g. Ceilings should be colored by a lighter tint of the side walls or by a 
lighter tint of an analogous hue. 

Rule 12h. Stains are usually not reduced to below three-fourths chromatic 
intensity. Nearly gray side walls, however, call for a reduction to one-fourth 
intensity. 

Rule Hi. Wall colors are usually reduced to three-fourths chroma to a min- 
imum reduction of slightly less than one-fourth chroma. 

Rule l"2j. Ceilings should usually be reduced in chroma to three-fourths in- 
tensity, with slightly less than one-fourth chroma as a minimum reduction. 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. What should we have in mind when staining furniture for the home? 

2. Why are the side walls important when considering the color scheme of 

a room? 

3. Give the value range for the average wood stains, side walls, and ceiling. 

4. State the value range to include wood work, furniture, trim, and side walls. 

5. State the value range that includes side walls and ceilings. 
G. Give the hue range for wood work and side walls. 

7. Explain the analogous, contrasted, and dominant groupings of hues and 

name two examples of each. 

8. Give the hue range for side walls and ceilings. Name several good combi- 

nations. 

9. Give range of chroma for wood work, side walls, and ceiling. Explain the 

reasons for each change of chroma. 

10. What experience have you had in mixing calcimine for wall decoration? 

11. Discuss opaque finishes for wood. 

12. Give the hues for rooms with northern and southern exposures. Why? 

13. State the effect of hues upon the apparent size of a room. 



Chapter XVII 

COLOR AND ITS RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL ARTS 

DESIGN 



Small Surfaces ix Clay and Metal 

Before proceeding to the discussion of the application of color 
to clay it becomes necessary to determine what technical possibilities 
are presented. 

Plain glazing of the entire surface is a common form of pottery 
enrichment. A piece of ware, thus glazed, may become a point of 
concentration in the color arrangement of a room, and should be 
definitely located in that arrangement. The ware may harmonize 
with the background (side wall) by analogy, dominance, or contrast 
or through complementary coloring. Rule F2o. A glaze from 
the diagram in Figure 464 should be selected as forming a part in 
the selected arrangement. Side wall (11), Figure 4o7, would harmo- 
nize with glaze C9 by virtue of its dominant relation or with M7 
through analogy. The glaze selected should be higher in chroma 
than the side wall and will be found to form a cheerful and brilliant 
element in the room color scheme. The definite linking of these 
different factors of interior decoration into unity has been earnestly 
advocated in these chapters. Figures 4.57 and 4(11 show the possibil- 
ities of cross references. 

It soon becomes apparent because of the coloring of clay ware 
that the designer must know something of the color possibilities of 
glazed pottery forms. The decorative processes were explained at, 
some length in Chapter XII, wherein we described the common 
types of surface enrichment. As we are now primarily considering 
the question of color, we first regard the ware as uniformly glazed 
with cither clear or malt glaze. The former is brilliant, of high 
chroma, and has a highly polished surface, while the latter is dull 
surfaced ulaze of lower chroma. 



Color Applied 
to the 
Surface 
Enrichment 
of Clay 



Stains for 
Glazes 



-2II!> 



210 



Proportionate 
Distribution 
of Color 
for Small 
Areas 



Metallic oxides are used to stain or color clear glazes, while under- 
glaze colors are ordinarily used for niatts. The percentage of stains 
to be added to the dry glazes is stated in Figure 404 where they can 
he readily traced to their approximate locations in the hue rectangles 
by the reference letters Ml, Cl, etc. Certain oxides are weak coloring 
agents and require larger amounts of oxide to color the glaze 
perceptibly. 

Iron and copper oxide may be mixed to produce a large variety 
of yellow greens; other combinations will suggest themselves. It 
is possible to use oxides as well as underglaze colors for staining 
matt glazes. 

We have, to this point, considered the enrichment of large sur- 
faces whose areas were arbitrarily determined by construction, as, 
for example, the extent of wall surface, ceiling, or wood trim and 
furniture. The essential element in this type of problem is the 
selection of a one, two, or three-hued color arrangement that would 
harmoniously link ceiling, wall, and wood together. If we had 
introduced stencilling or figured wall paper it would have imme- 
diately called for the solution of another problem, the factor of how 
much strong color to use. In other words, it would have introduced 
the question of proportionate distribution of color upon a given area. 
It was thought best to limit the subject of proportionate distribution 
to small areas, where the designer is often forced to make decisions 
and to divide surfaces into proportionate color parts for his surface 
enrichment. 

We may now repeat the definition of harmony with the accen- 
tuation placed upon a certain wording directly applicable to small 
surfaces. Harmony is obtained by the proper balancing and pro- 
portionate distribution of value, hue, and chroma upon a surface to 
give a unified and pleasing reaction to the eye and intellect. 

Rule 12k. Proportionate distribution of hue, value, and chroma in 
surface enrichment calls for a small area, high in chroma, and contrast- 
ing in value to the rest of the surface but harmonizing with it. This 
is usually located in the area of concodration. The larger areas are 
to be sufficiently reduced in chroma and value to form a slight contrast 
icith the background. 

Figure 405 illustrates some of the salient factors of distribution 



[211] 

of values and hues. Hues of or near standard chromatic intensity 

should be used in small quantities and should accentuate the point 

of concentration. These small areas are to be regarded as giving 

brilliancy and life to the surface and to hold the eye at the point of 

concentration. Very small surfaces are capable of sustaining spots 

of high chroma, as is shown in the silver pin of Figure 468. The 

remaining portions of the surface enrichment should be kept subordi- Examples of 

nated in hue and value to the point of concenl ration, but related to it. Proportionate 

The bands of Figure 405 are well reduced in value and make little Distribution 

contrast with the background, thus forming true surface enrichment 

or that which neither rises above or apparently falls through the 

surface. The point of concentration is higher in chroma than the 

surrounding areas. 

Rule l c 2l. One hue, or a group of analogous hues should dominate 
all color schemes. The point of concentration may be emphasized by one 
hue related to the other hues by (/) contrasted, (.■?) dominant, (.>) analogous, 
(4) complementary relations. This hue should make slightly stronger 
value and chroma contrast than the remaining hues. 

Rule l c 2m. An extreme range of fire values is generally sufficient to 
supply contrast to a design but still retain its value unity. Restraint in 
the use of values is essential. 

Rule '['in. The amount of chroma may be increased in proportion 
to the decrease in the decorated area. Exceptions may be made to this 
under Rule 1 2o. 

In the vase, Figure 4G4A, the designer selected hues from neigh- 
boring or analogous reel angles green and blue-green. The value 

V3.I11G find 
range is restricted to four steps and the areas ol concentration are TT 

to ' Hue and 

placed at the top of the vase by the stronger value and hue contrasts chroma 

of the foliage of the lives and dark blue rim. In both Figures, 4(54A Range for 
and 4(55, the designer has [\scd analogous hue arrangements. This Small Areas 
is suggested to the beginner as serviceable for objects exceeding the 
dimensions of jewelry and includes such problems as vase forms, 
book stalls, and brackets. Contrasted and dominant arrangements 
are also good, safe, and sound arrangements, but fail to give the var- 
iety of color to small objects afforded by analogous grouping. At a 
later point in this chapter the subject of complementary coloring 
will suggest a new arrangement to the reader, but this scheme is to 



212 



Over 

Reduction 
in Chroma 



Color 
Applied to 
the Surface 
Enrichment 
of Metal 



Enamels 



Transparent 
Enamels 



be left until he has sufficiently mastered the possibilities of the 
arrangements just indicated. 

Five values form a safe value range for small objects. It is good 
practice to keep the larger areas, including the background, within 
three steps of each other and to allow the point of concentration to 
form the strongest value contrast. 

The chroma may range from full to three-quarters intensity. 
Reduction to one-half or one-fourth intensity is inclined to make a 
small object appear washed out or chalky. Shades, at their full 
intensity, are good colors to use for small surfaces in wood. Small 
enameled objects may be developed in full chroma, while pottery 
forms range from full chroma to one-half chroma in forms of slip and 
underglaze painting. 

It is interesting to note the gradually increasing chroma per- 
centage of the different coloring media in direct proportion to the 
reduction of the area of the surface to be enriched. By comparing the 
diagrams of Figures 404 and 4.57 it will be seen that there is a steady 
movement toward the left sides of the hue rectangles or toward 
stronger intensity. The wall areas are shown to be lowest in chroma, 
followed by the increasing intensity of wood stains, glazes, and enamels. 

Enamels, commonly used to enrich metal surfaces, are highest 
in chroma of the decorative materials under discussion and are to be 
treated with nearly as much restraint as one would use in enriching 
a surface with semi-precious stones, for strong hues are cheapened by 
excessive use. The plate in Figure 43G has small circles filled with 
enamel and a large field of chased or uncolored design. 

Transparent enamels are comparable to clear glazes and the 
coloring medium is the same. Their preparation is difficult and 
therefore trade names have been given in the table of Figure 4G4. 
As will be seen by consulting the diagram of Figure 4G4, Tl, T2, T3, 
etc., they are all at their full value intensity. Enamels, as supplied 
by the trade, are much too intense for use in enrichment and conse- 
quently are applied over a coating of colorless clear enamel, tech- 
nically named flux or fondant. As the thickness of coating of enamel 
may vary, the hue classification is to be regarded as approximate. 

Opaque enamels may be compared with matt glazes, for, while 
the texture of the surface has a distinct gloss, the enamels themselves 




















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213 



are not so strong in hue as the transparent enamels. By referring 
to the diagram of Figure 464, it may be seen that many of the opaque 
enamels are reduced in chroma, thus accounting for their softened hue. 

Metals are capable of considerable change of color by the appli- 
cation of chemicals to the surface. Potassium sulphuret will lower 
the surface value of silver or copper to a rich velvety black associated 
with antiques. This may be removed in places naturally subjected 
to wear, thus varying the (lend black appearance. Copper and brass 
may be coated with salt and vinegar or verdigris to give the surface 
a corroded and greenish appearance. Hen ting is a fugitive method 
of coloring and is, therefore, not considered. 

These surface changes may be utilized to harmonize metal and its 
environment, as, for example, copper trimmings and a shade for a 
pottery lamp; or it may be used to reduce the brightness of the 
natural copper surface. 

The surfaces of metals may be changed with actual manipulation 
of the surface by frosting or sanding and plating. Gold may be 
readily plated with gold to bring it into closer harmony with the 
stone. Plating, applied to base metals, merely to give the impres- 
sion of a more expensive metal, is to be discouraged. 

One has to consider metal as a background in much the same 
manner as we considered wall surfaces as a background for stained 
furniture. Whatever color is applied to the surface must harmonize 
in proportionate distribution as well as hue, value, and chroma. We 
have a small amount of leeway for varying the background by the 
different processes of oxidation and plating. 

As one of the more common processes, let us consider the appli- 
cation of enamel to copper in the form of champleve enrichment. 
Our first thought would be the analysis of the natural copper color. 
It is found to be a shade of orange-red and will, therefore, readily 
harmonize with the analogous- oranges and reds, as they both have the 
common hue of vvi\. Then* should be a slight contrast of value 
between these enamels and the background. If this contrast is not 
present, it is well to oxidize* slightly the copper to lower its value and 
thus produce the contrast. 

The fourth harmonious hue combination, that of complementary 
arrangement or grouping, has been left to the last as its use is more 



Opaque 
Enamels 



Oxidation 



Harmony 

through 

Oxidation 



Metal 
Backgrounds 



Enamel on 
a Copper 
Background 



214] 



Complemen- 
tary Arrange- 
ment 



The Relation 
of Colored 
Glazes to 
Interior 
Decoration 
of a Room 



closely associated with small multi-colored projects and small areas. 
A hue approximately complementary to the initial hue is found by 
counting seven rectangles to the right or left of that hue; this will 
give the hue complementary to the initial hue. Thus, starting with 
red and moving through seven rectangles toward the right, we find 
the complement to be green. Any two hues so selected will be found 
to enhance the brilliancy of each other. The best results are secured 
when one hue dominates the color scheme by its increased area. 
Pottery may be adapted to a complementary color scheme by Rule l c 2i. 

Rule l c 2o. Small one or tivo-hucd projects in clay, designed to be 
used as a part of the decorative color scheme for a room should bear a 
contrasted, dominant, analogous, or complementary relation to the side 
trails of the room. The project may be much higher in chroma than the 
side walls. 

To find a glaze that will harmonize with the side walls of a room 
by complementary arrangement of hues, select the desired wall tint 
from the diagram in Figure 457. Find the similar hue rectangle in 
the diagram of Figure 464 and, starting with this rectangle as one, 
count seven hues from the side wall rectangle in either direction. 
In the seventh rectangle or in a neighboring one will usually be found 
a number of glazes answering the requirements and bearing a com- 
plementary relation to the side walls. Select a glaze from these that 
will make a contrast of chroma or value with the side wall. Example: 
background or side wall, Figure 457, Xo. 8, is in the orange yellow 
rectangle. Counting seven from this in Figure 464 we find the com- 
plement to be blue violet. As there is no glaze in this rectangle we 
will move to its neighbor on the left. This gives us clear glaze, Cl, 
containing one and one-half per cent black oxide of cobalt, or a matt 
glaze containing seven per cent mazarine blue. 

Glazes that will harmonize with side wall 8 through dominant 
arrangements are found in the same rectangle, O Y, and are num- 
bered yio, M6, C7, C8. Glazes that will harmonize by analogy 
arc 09 and M7, and are found in the left and right neighboring 
rectangles. 

In Figure 466, the copper fob, R O, is combined with its comple- 
mentary blue-green. Let us look at Figure 464. Counting seven 
intervals or hue rectangles to the right of the orange red rectangle we 



21; 



find T4 which is transparent blue green enamel. We may associate 
with this an analogous enamel from the green rectangle; this proves 
to be To medium green transparent enamel. 

The point of concentration may now be emphasized by an enamel 
complementary to the bine green hue. Counting seven rectangles 
to the left we again encounter the red orange rectangle. Here there 
arc no enamels but in the red hue rectangle we find T7 which is slightly 
orange-red. A small portion of this, Rule l L 2k, is applied and is 
found to center the design at the point of concentration in a satis- 
factory manner. Slight oxidation brings out the colors of the 
enamels. 

Upon attempting to develop the same figure in opaque enamels it 
is soon seen that there are no pleasing complementary enamels of this 
type, but many analogous combinations. Autumn brown with the 
point of concentration developed in orange (0.5) would be an excellent 
compromise. 

Rule l£p. Correct color for surface enrichment should neither 
apparently rise above nor drop below the surface to which it is applied, 
but should stay upon the plane of that surface. Correct value and chroma 
range will accomplish this. 

The gray-blue color of silver lends itself to a great number of gem 
stones, forming examples of contrasted arrangements. Care should 
be taken to form contrasts of value. Figure 407 is an example of a 
weak and insipid combination, lacking in value and hue contrast. 
The amethyst of Figure 4(58 corrects this error, while the oxidation 
of Figure 469 has partially corrected the lack of contrast shown in 
Figure 467. These illustrations tend to show that even stronger 
contrasts may be al templed with small gems and semi-precious 
stones than with enamels. This again proves the rule that the 
smaller areas are capable of sustaining stronger contrasts of hue, 
value, and chroma than are large ones. 



Development 
of Design 
for Enamel 
on Metal 



Color for 

Silver 

Enrichment 



SIM MAIM* OF DESIGN STEPS 



The aniline <>f the .surface enriclinieiil is considered as complete. 
(«) M ktal ok Woou. Analyze the background into its hue, value, and chroma. 
Clay. Select a background that will harmonize with the controlling 
line or lines of the proposed color scheme. Rule Ho. II* this is a one lined 



[ 810 1 

color scheme without gradation or surface enrichment the design steps 
may terminate at this point. 

(b) Metal, Wood, axd Clay. Select the extreme value range of the color 

scheme, considering, if possible, the background as a balancing or pivotal 
value point upon which the values may bala-nee above and below. As 
the side walls formed a balancing point for the ceiling and furniture or 
wood work, so may the background of metal, wood, or colored clay 
become a similar balancing factor for small surfaces. Rule 12m. 

(c) Metal, Wood, axd Clay. Select a hue or hues which will harmonize 

with the background through dominant, contrasting, or analogous re- 
lations. Rule 121. In selecting the hues consider the final placing of 
the object. 

((/) Metal, Wood, and Clay. Select a chroma range. Allow the point or 
area of concentration to have a slightly higher chromatic relation than 
the other hues. The point of concentration may be one of the hues 
already selected or it may bear a complementary relation to them. The 
hues may be averaged and a complementary to the average selected. 
Rule 12n. 

(e) Metal, Wood, axd Clay. Apply the rule of proportionate distribution, 
Rule 12k. 

(/) Metal axd Wood. Using the pigments suggested in Chapter XV, design 
the problem. Test the result by applying Rule 12p. 

(g) Clay. If the design has been developed in slip or underglaze painting, 
select a glaze for an overglaze coating that will harmonize with the 
prevailing hues by dominance or analogy. Other arrangements may 
destroy the hues of the original color scheme. 

(h) Develop the problem in its material. 

SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 

Design a bowl for nasturtiums; make the color arrangement harmonize 
through analogy with the hues of the flowers. 

Design a vase for chrysanthemums; make the surface enrichment and the 
color arrangement harmonize through dominance with the hues of the flowers. 

Design a hat pin for a blue hat; materials, copper, and transparent enamels. 

Design a brooch to be worn with a gray dress. 

Design a pottery and copper lamp with amber art glass in the shade. 
Through oxidation and glazing, bring the lamp into color unity. 



SUMMARY OF RULES 

Rule 12k. Proportionate distribution of hue, value, and chroma in surface 
enrichment calls for a small area high in chroma and contrasting in value to the 
rest of the surface, but harmonizing with it. This is usually located in the area 
of concentration. The larger areas are to be sufficiently reduced in chroma and 
vuluc to form a slight contrast with the background. 

Hues for Small Objects 

Rule 121. One hue, or a group of analogous hues should dominate all color 
schemes. The point of concentration may be emphasized by one line related to the 



[217] 

oilier hues by (1) contrasted, {2) dominant, (J) analogous, or (.)) complementary 
relations. This hue should make slightly stronger value and chroma contrast than 
the remaining hues. 

Values for Small Objects 

Rule 12m. An extreme range of Jive values is generally sufficient to supply 
contrast to a design but still retain its value unity. Restraint in the use of values 
is essential. 

Chroma for Small Objects 

Rule 12n. The amount of chroma may be increased in proportion to the de- 
crease in the decorated area. Exceptions may be made to this under Rule 12o. 

Rule 12o. Small one or two-hued projects in clay, designed to be used as a 
part of the decorative color scheme for a room should bear a contrasted, dominant, 
analogous, or complementary relation to the side nulls of the room. The project 
may be much higher in chroma than the side vails. 

Rule 12p. Correct color for surface enrichment should neither apparently 
rise above nor drop below the surface to which it is applied, but should slay upon 
the plane of that surface. Correct value and chroma range will accomplish this. 



REVIEW QUESTION'S 

1. State the value of mono-hued pottery in the deeorative scheme of a room. 

2. What are generally used as stains for clear glazes; matt glazes? 

3. What is highest in chroma — matt, or clear glaze? 

4. Make a table of metallic oxides and the hues produced by them. 

5. Why will iron and copper oxides produce a yellow green stain? What stains 

will be produced by cobalt and copper oxides; cobalt and manganese 
oxides; cobalt and nickel oxides? 
(>. Describe the type of room which you regard as best fitted for clear glazed 

pottery forms; matt glazed pottery forms. 
7. Define harmony of color. 
S. What is meant by proportionate distribution? Describe proportionate 

distribution. 
!). (Jive the value, hue, and chroma range for small areas. Sec Rules 
121, 12m, and I2n. 

10. I low does the size of the area to be enriched by color affect the color medium, 

i.e., stains, glazes, enamels, etc.? 

11. Describe enamels, their types, characteristics, and range of hues. Consult 

catalogs for fuller possibilities. 

12. What is tlie effect of oxidation; what is its value? 

1J5. Describe fully complementary arrangements and give illustrations for 

enamel on silver or copper. 
1 1. State the color scheme for a fob to be worn with a blue-green dress; with a 

gray suit for a man. 
1.3. Select a stone for a silver brooch that would harmonize with a light blue 

dress; for a dress of orange dark hue and value. See catalogs of dealers 

in semi-precious stones for color of stones. 
Hi. What problems of hue, value, and chroma would arise in Question 1.1? 



SUMMARY OF THE GENERAL AND SPECIAL 
RULES IX THE PRECEEDING CHAPTERS 

Horizontal and Vertical Primary Masses 

Rule la. -1 primary mass must be either vertical or horizontal according to 
the intended service, unless prohibited by technical requirements. 

Proportions of the Primary Mass 

Rule lb. The primary mass should have the ratio af one to three, three to four, 
three to five, fire to eight, seven to ten, or some similar proportion difficult for the eye 
to detect readily and analyze. 

Horizontal Space Divisions 

Rule -2a. If the primary mass is divided into two horizontal divisions, the 
dominance should be either in the upper or the lower section. 

Rule 2b. If the primary mass is divided into three horizontal divisions or 
sections, the dominance should be placed in the center section ivith varying widths 
in the upper and lower thirds. 

Sequential Progression of Minor Horizontal Space Divisions 

Rule 2e. A primary mass may be divided into three or more smaller hori- 
zontal masses or sections by placing the larger mass or masses at the bottom and 
by sequentially reducing the height measure of each mass toward the smaller 
division or divisions to be located at the top of the mass. 

Vertical Space Divisions 

Rule 3a. If the primary mass is divided into two vertical divisions, the divisions 
should be equal in area and similar inform. 

Rule 3b. If the primary mass is divided into three vertical divisions, the center 
division should be the larger, with the remaining divisions of equal size. 

Rule 3e. In elementary problems, if more than three vertical divisions are 
required, they should be so grouped as to analyze into Rules Sa, and 3b, or be exactly 
similar. 

Appendages 

Rule -la. The appendage should be designed in unity with, and proportionately 
related to, the vertical or horizontal character of the primary mass, but subordinated 
to it. 

Rule -U>. The appendage should have the appearance of flowing smoothly 
and, if possible, tangentially from the primary mass. 

Rule 4c. The appendage should, if possible, echo or repeat some lines similar 
in character and direction to those of the primary mass. 

r sis l 



[ *19 ] 

Outline or Contour Enrichment 

Rule 5a. Outline enrichment should be subordinated to and support the 
structure. 

Rule 5b. Outline enrichment should add grace, lightness, and variety to 
the design. 

Rule 5c. Outline enrichment, by its similarity, should give a sense of oneness 
or unity to the design, binding divergent members together. 

Rule 5d. Parts of one design differing in function should differ in appearance 
but be co-ordinated with the entire design. 

Rule 5e. In cylindrical forms outline curves with a vertical tendency should 
have their turning points or units of measurement in accordance with the horizontal 
divisions of Rules 2a and 2b. 

Rule of. Dependent outline enrichment should be related to essential parts of 
a design and influenced by their forms and functions; it must be consistent with the 
idea of the subject. 

Rule 5g. A curve should join a straight line with either a tangential or right 
angle junction. 

Surface Enrichment 

Postulate. The design should conform to the limitations and requirements 
of tools, processes, and materials, and should be durable and suitable for service. 

Rule Ga. Surfaces to be enriched must admit of enrichment. 

Rule Gb. Surface enrichment must be related to the structural contours but 
must nor obscure the actual structure. 

Rule 6c. The treatment must be appropriate to the material. 

Continuous Bands and Borders for Partly Knriched Surfaces 

Rule Gel. Hands and borders should have a consistent lateral, that is, onward 
movement. 

Rule Ge. Bands and borders should never have a prominent contrary motion, 
opposed to the main forward movement. 

Rule Gf. All component parts of a border should move in unison with the 
main movement of the border. 

Rule Gg. Each component part of a border should be strongly dynamic and, if 
possible, partake of the main movements of the border. 

Rule Gh. Borders intended for vertical surfaces may have a strongly upward 
movement in addition to the lateral movement, provided the lateral movement dom- 
inates. 

Rule Gi. Inlayed enrichment should never form strong or glaring contrasts 
with the parent surface. 

Rule (ij. Carved surface enrichment should have the appearance of belonging 
to the parent mass. 

Enclosed Enrichment Partly Enriched Panels 
for Surface Enrichment 

Rule ~a. Marginal panel enrichment should parallel or be related to the 
outlines of the primary mass and to the panel it is to enrich. 

Rule 71). Marginal points of concentration in panels should be placed (/) pref- 
erably at the corners or (2) in the center of each margin. 

Rule 7c. To insure unity of design in panels, the elements composing the point 
of concentration and links connecting them must be related to the panel contour 
and to each other. 



[ sso ] 

Enclosed Enrichment — Fully Enriched Panels 
for Surface Enrichment 

Rule 7d. The contours of fully enriched panels should parallel the outlines 
of the primary mass and repeat its proportions. 

Rule ?c. The points of concentration for a fully enriched square panel may be 
in its center or in its outer margin. 

Rule 7f. The points of concentration for a fully enriched vertical panel should 
be in the upper portion of the panel. 

Rule 7g. The fully enriched panel and its contents should be designed in 
unified relation to the structural outlines, with the center line of the panel coinciding 
with the inceptive axis of the structure. 

Free Ornament for Partly Enriched Surfaces 

Rule 8a. Free ornament for partly or fully enriched surfaces should be based 
and centered upon an inceptive axis of the structure. 

Rule 81). Free ornament should be related and subordinated to the structural 
surfaces. 

Rule 8e. Points of concentration in free enrichment of vertically placed masses 
are usually located in and around the inceptive axis and above or below the geometric 
center of the design. 

Surface Enrichment of Clay 

Rule 9a. Surface enrichment of clay must be so designed as to be able to with- 
stand the action of heat to which all icare must be submitted. 

Rule 9b. Incised, pierced, and modeled decoration in clay should be simple 
and bold and thus adapted to the character of the material. 

Rule 9e. A border should not be located at the point of greatest curvature in the 
contour of a cylindrical form. The contour curve is of sufficient interest in itself 
at that point. 

Surface Enrichment of Base and Precious Metals 
For Small Masses 

Rule 10a. Designs in precious metals should call for the minimum amount of 
metal necessary to express the idea of the designer for two reasons: (i) good taste; 
(J) economy of material. 

Rule 10b. Contour and surface enrichment should never appear to compete 
for attention in the same design. 

Rule lOe. Parts of a design differing in function should differ in appearance 
but be co-ordinated with the entire design. 

Rule lOd. Surface enrichment should at some point parallel the contours of 
both primary mass and point of concentration especially whenever the latter is a stone 
or enamel. 

Rule lOe. In the presence of cither stone or enamel as a point of concentration, 
surface enrichment should be regarded as an unobtrusive setting, or background. 

Rule lOf. Stane or enamel used as a point of concentration should form contrast 
with the metal, either in color, brilliancy, or value, or all three combined. 

Rule 10g. The inceptive axis should pass through and coincide with one axis 
of a stone and at the same time be sympathetically related to the structure. 



[ 3*1 ] 

Rule lOh. The position of the inceptive axis should be determined by: (1) use 
of the project as ring, pendant, or bar pin, (J) character of the primary mass as 
either vertical or horizontal in proportion. 

Rule lOi. Caution should be exercised iritlt regard to the use of enamel. 
Orer-dccoration by this material tends to cheapen both process and design. 

Rule lOj. All surface enrichment should have an appearance of compactness 
or unity. Pierced spots or areas should be so used as to avoid the appearance 
of having been scattered on the surface without thought to their coherence. 

Rule 10k. Built, carved, and chased enrichment should have the higher planes 
near the point of concentration. It is well to have the stone us the highest point above 
the primary mass. When using this form of enrichment, the stone should never 
appear to rise abruptly from the primary mass, but should be approached by a scries 
of rising planes. 

Rule 101. The lanes or margins between enameled spots should be narrower 
than the lane or margin between the enamel and the contour of the primary mass. 

Rule 10m. Transparent and opaque stones or enamel should not be wsed in the 
same design. 



Surface Enrichment of Rase axd Precious Metals 
For Large Primary Masses 

Rule 11a. The preliminary steps toward surface enrichment should be 
thought out before they arc drawn. 

Rule 111). Conservative application should mark the use of surface enrichment 
of large masses. Its use should: (/) lighten or soften necessarily heavy construction; 
(2) support or apparently strengthen good structure; (J) add interest to large 
unbroken and uninteresting surfaces. 

Rule lie. The type of design unit for large masses should be bolder than 
similar designs for small primary masses. 

Rule lid. The eye should be attracted to one principal zone of enrichment, 
whether located upon the primary mass, appendage, terminal, links, or details. 
All other zones should be subordinate to this area. 

Rule lie. Two periods of historic ornament should not be introduced into 
the same design. 

Rule llf. Repulsive forms should not be introduced into surface enrichment. 



Application of Color to Large Areas 
values 

Rule 12a. An average wood stain is to be retained between the values middle 
and low dark. 

Rule Lib. An average wall hue is to be retained between the values light 
and middle. 

Rule Lie. An average ceiling hue is to be retained between the values white 
(minus) and light. 

Rule Lid. The relation between the side trails and furniture, trim, etc., 
should be retained within the range of four values or less, as low light and dark. 

Rule 12e. The relation between the side walls and ceiling should be within 
the range of three values or less, as high light and low light. 



Rule 12f. Color schemes for ivood work and side trails should preferably 
be selected from one of the following groupings: analogous, contrasted, or dominant 
arrangements of hues. Analogous grouping is preferable where variety of line is 
desirable. 

Rule l~ig. Ceilings should be colored by a lighter tint of the side walls or by a 
lighter tint of an analogous hue. 



Rule 12h. Stains are vsually not reduced to below three-fourths chromatic 
intensity. Nearly gray side walls, however, call for a reduction to one-fourth 
intensity. 

Rule I2i. Wall colors are usually reduced to three-fourths chroma to a mini- 
mum reduction of slightly less than one-fourth chroma. 

Rule 12j. Ceilings should usually be reduced in chroma to three-fourths 
intensity, with slightly less than one-fourth chroma as a minimum reduction. 



DISTRIBUTION* 

Rule l"2lc. Proportionate distribution of hue, value, and chroma in surface 
enrichment calls for a small area, high in chroma, and contrasting in value to the 
rest of the surface, but harmonizing with it. This is usually located in the area of 
concentration. The larger areas are to be sufficiently reduced in chroma and value 
to form slight contrast with the background. 



HUES FOR SMALL OBJECTS 

Rule 121. One hue, or a group of analogous hues should dominate all color 
schemes. The point of concentration may be emphasized by one hue related to the 
other hues by (1) contrasted, (2) dominant, (J) analogous, (4) complementary 
relations. This hue should make slightly stronger value and chroma contrast 
than the remaining hues. 

VALUES FOR SMALL OBJECTS 

Rule 1*2111. An extreme range of fire values is generally sufficient to supply 
contrast to a design but still retain its value unity. Restraint in the use of values 
is essential. 

CHROMA FOR SMALL OBJECTS 

Rule 12n. The amount of chroma may be increased in proportion to the de- 
crease in the decorated area. Exceptions may be made to this under Rule 12o. 

Rule 12o. Small one or two-hued projects in clay, designed to be used as a 
part of the decorative color scheme for a room should bear a contrasted, dominant, 
analogous, or complementary relation to the side nails of the room. The project 
may be much higher in chroma than the side walls. 

Rule 12p. Correct color for surface enrichment should neither apparently 
rise above nor drop below the surface to which it is applied, but should stay upon 
the plane of that surface. Correct value and chroma range will accomplish this. 



[ <^3 ] 

APPENDIX 

The following plates comprise complete courses for applied art 
problems in thin metal (copper and silver), and clay. The problems 
are based upon what is known as the "group system." The process 
forms the basis for each group in each course. The stated problem 
in each group is merely one of many that might be selected which 
involves the process of the group. 

The design rule that should be applied to each problem has been 
indicated by its proper figure and letter on each plate, as 10a, etc. 
The plates are sequentially arranged in order of the difficulty of 
the process and may be summarized as follows. 

Thin Metal 

Plate 67: Bending. Sawing. Riveting. 

Plate 08: Bending. Soft Soldering. 

Plate 69: Raising. Piercing. Etching. 

Plate 70: Raising and Planishing. 

Plate 71: Bending. Piercing. Etching. Hard Soldering. 

Plate 72: Hinge Construction. 

Plate 73: Raising. Planishing. Hard Soldering. 

Plate 74: Raising. Planishing. 

Plate 7.5: Champleve Enamelling. 

Plate 7G: Precious Stone Mounting; Pins. 

Plate 77: Precious Slone Mounting; Rings. 

Plate 78: Precious Stone Mounting; Pendants. 

Pott fry 

Plate 70: Hand Built Tile. 

Plate 80: Hand Built Bowl, Coil and Strip Method. 

Plate 81: Same with Appendage Added. 

Plate 8 L 2: Hand Building; Spouts, Lids, Handles. 

Plate 83: Poured Forms and Mould Making. 

Plate 84: Slip Painting. 

Plate 85: Glaze Testing. 



[ *li ] 

•Applied Arts: Thin n eta. l. 

• Process I . ©ending , sawing . RiN/'e.Tirvte. t • 
PROBLEAV- PAPER. KNIFE. MATERIAL. COPPER OR BISA55 

• 5IZ.E. |\9"' 



TYPE 




Pf 



5^> -T'\.>~< s ^ Terminals 



MATTER IAL . 16 G. COPPER. 
ENRICHMENT. PLANISHING 



VA.R: I AXIOMS - 5$~ 




— 0- 




--B- 





lOoL 



MATERIAL- l€><5 BRASS OR COPPBR 
ENRICHMENT. PlBROING 




i\3- 



iof 



tox. 



MATERIAL I2.G. COPPER^ 
ENRICH nEMT(CHAMPLEvt) 

ENAMau 



Plate G7 



•Applied Arts Thim Metal- 
• Process 2: Bending and Soft soldering 
Problem: card tract - material is G copper or bra55 

5ize: i P ^i* oq. 



-5cx.-b 




ENRICHMENT: PIE.R.CE.D PLATE. 



VAR.IATIONO 






7c 



H03 



ISI 



Ox. 




r3<L>Y 



■10L 



Piercing 



'jo ;f 
piercing enamelling 



Plate (58 



226 



• Applied Arts Thin Hetal- 

• Process 3: Raising • Piercing- Etching- 
Problem: Pe.m Tray Matlrial ^ G Copper or Brass 

4 



Size: i P ii^-*3 i 



Pb 



TYPE I 



leu 



r~ 



lO<5L 

loj 
llbt 



S 




•*i" 



;p?-_ .M =:. 



8< 






ENRICHMENT : PlERCIMG 




3oLopplicd 



VARIATIONS 





ENRICHMENT .* PlERCIMG 

Repou5SEing . Etching 



5c- 



Type 2 



Plate G9 



2 L 27 



• APPLIED ARTS : THIM METAL * 
process 3 : Raising. Planishing : TRAY5 
prosle/^:crumb tray 5et -material \e> or zo g copper 
« size. : tray 3**7 " Brush to fit tray • 
'5u6ge5teld problem - serving tray • 

TYPE I 




t: 



Jv^ 



J 



Tray 



PIERCED OR 
REP0U55ED 



IOC 



Possible 2ion<c 
d ^ G , VARIATION OF TYPE I 4-fe of Enrichment 



Enrichment 



— .^ru v.. , 




iia. 



TYPE 2 

CIRCULAR TRAY 

.SIMILAR TO 
TYPE I 



BRUSH 
VARIATIONS IN HANDLES 



r 



/ 



Raised B055 



DLZZID 



Platk 70 



2*8 



- Applied Arts : THirt metal- 
* Process 4-: Bendiisg , piercing- etchimg -Hard Solderikg 

PROBLEM! MAPKIN "RlMG' MATERIAL I8 0R2o6 COPPER- 

TYPE- I • 



S' 



e&L 



j J/QJ P3^K. 



ENRICHMENT PIEJRCED 



VARIATION IN ENRICHMENT 
REPOUSSE. OR SOLDERED PLATE 





lli.il fin.. 



Tfli 



\ 



8b 



TYPE-Z- 6 b 



5b 



ENAMELLED REP0U5OE 






f 




ENAMBL, 

^■^^^U-TinT irt| 
^y I Co lop. 



75L 



1e 



Platk 71 



229 



•Applied Arts : Thim AAetal* 
• pisoce55 5 . hlnge coh5truction • 

PROBLEMS STAnP OR TE.vsre.l_ BOX • HING-.D- CATCH OPTIONAL 
MATERIAL.- IS 0R.2O G COPPER. * BO* 2^x2. |*X i£" 1^-X 3"x5" " » 



7^L 



TYPE.- I 







o 



sf 



E 



o 




SOLOER5 

SOFT SOLDER". VARYING PARTS OF LEAD AMD TIM 
FOR PEWTER • THE SAME. WITH 6I5MUTH 

BRAZING SOLDER : EQUAL PARTS COPPE-R AMD Z.INC 

:(SOFTER) LARGE-R AMOUNT OF2H WITH 5&AISD SK 

HARD OR. SVLV&R. SOLDER: SEVEN PART5 OF 5ILVER - I OF BRA55 

5 » 

3 , 

Z I 

SOLDER FOR. ENAMELLED PARTS - . IOZ.. SILVER - 5DWT • COPPER ALLOT 



Platk 72 



230 



• Applied Arts : Thim Mltal- 
•process 6 raising pl anishing . soldering ) 
Problem : spoon (almond) : Material 16G Copper • 

type I 



7' 7s. 



Terminal 
Enrich mcnT 



REINFORCING "REPOUSSE 




ENRICHMENT 4b 
,CL llaL 5oL etching 

Type 2 




c 



O 




ROUND 




Bound 



Etching 



PIERCING 



Piercing 



Plate 73 



231 



•Applied arts Thin Metal- 

Process 7 : Raising , Planishing • 



is 



Problem : Bowl,(Almomd)with Feet- /Material ^g Copper 



TYPE 




-~ 7^ 



~ro m 




EET-(3 0(K A) 
16 GAUGE 



Type 2 



Octagonal 



5dL- 



c 






o 






) 


c 


^__- 




o 


, — 


v^. ^ 


> 




" 


o 


■ — " 




( 






) 


c=L 


, 


L ^ 


i=a 









USE. or Dor-iiNG 
Punch 



Variations 
6f *£ y 6oL 





One. Piece: 



enrichme.mt : etching and 
Repousse 



ll"b 



Variations 



7^ 



G> 



C) 



o 



■~\ 



CNRICHME.NT : LIMOGCS ENAMELL 



Plate 71- 



-Applied Arts : Thin Metal- 
• "Process a : Champleve ENAnELLiMG • 

• PROBLEMS ." HAT PirtS • FOBS • PAPER KMIVE.S • 

• i~\ at trials: izgcoppertrahsparent or. 

OPAaUE ENAMEL 

RULES \Of -lO)TL ' IQJ'IOL- IOm- 




80 



ioa 






^ 



^--loa HAT P1 ^ 



'So 



ggL^o 



3d, 




)OZ- N ^_ 



FOBS: COMMCRaAL FIXTURES i FOR 1 4: AMD |" RI6BOM 



Paper, cutter^ 

FlLEJD XO A 
CUTTItHG EDGE 




Plate 75 



£33 



•applied Arts : Thim Metal. • 

• PROCESSES E.m- PRECIOUS STONE. nOUriTl MG • 
EMRlCHriE.HT; E.TCHIMG , PIEROHG, CARVING, RA\5| IM O ; G RAI MO .TWI 5T3 • 
PR05LEM3: "PlNi • MATERIAL . BODY. I3G S~TE.RUIl~HG. . BEZEL26G F|ME 

FITTIKG5-6ERMAM SILVER. . 



TYPE. • I • 
&AR. ~P|H«> 

rules iocl-Td-oL-c -f -g"-"h--L.-lc: • 



°E 



fit 



5b 



/ok 



BU I LT UP 



USPS?, 

u " 10b 



5/ 






raised or Pierced 






Built up 



8 c- 




6j 



VARIATIONS OF TYPE. 

BROOCHES 



.z-Sf 



6j 



!0b 




|0K 



TYPE 2 • 
TIE. PIMS 



° fc <^°^^- 5 ^" 



<$&S>st 



5f (5jU 5 f /*<?* 



/AY 5 * IF? 

1 y 



•5b 



5b O 



D 



I'latk 70 



234 



* Applied Arts : Thih Hetal- 

Process: io soldering, carving, stone, mouhtimg- 
PR.oe.LEm: "Ring construction • 

MATERIAL". 18 G STERLITIG • BEZEL 2.6 G FlKE SILVER. 

raULES 10CL- To-d.- (L-f ■ g - K • j • fc • 




TYPE • Z 







TYPE- 3 



IQVc 




C <S 



;j 



3 



JR.. 



~wr 





MOTE: jeiMGS DESIGNED TO 
5EW0RM BY WOMEM SHOULD 
fcE LIGHTER THAN TYPE.- I • 



Plate 77 



235 



• Applied Arts : Thin r\EXAi_* 

• ProcESSHPeNDAHT COM3TRUCTION • CHAIIN MAKiriG 

various fof2r\5 of emrichmemt* 
"Problems : Pehdahtj, lavaliere.5, collars . 

MATERIAL". 12>odv 15 TO I FOSTERLING- BEZELS 26GFINE- CHAIN :TERuMC 

KULE5 \Qa,--b [ -cL-<zf-g-h.-L-K 








SIMPLE PLAN 
SHOWING NEED 
OF ENRICHMENT 




5cl 



5a _ Pierced enrichment 



\ 



5cL 

Ac 



4-cL 




@-8o 



9 



/ 

LinK FLATTeHEO 



6 



LlMKO FORMED OVER MANDREL 
|*LQM& 32" THICK.- "RlNGO OVER. 
SMALL CHITTING NEEDLE- 



Platk 78 



-236 




u«f of ais- 



Figure 470. — Inceptive Axes. Partial Illustration of the Metal Course 



f 



237 ] 



• Applied Aets • Clay • Pottery . 
•"Process \ • hand built tile • cut from flat pie.ce. • 

vC/ CLEAR GLA2.Elb)VAR.iED GLAZ&& 

"Problems: paper, weisht- arch .tile -t pot stand- coaster • 

RULE5 9ct-llc 

TYPE. . \ . 
CLE AELG LAZE. 



9b-r 



INCI5E.D 
DECORAT- 
ION 



3"b 



TYPE 2. INLAY 7^ 



TYPE 3 CO LOR &D MATHS 




stains ug. White 

6laze .51 colorless 

type . -4-. 




MATT G.LAZ.E hC 
MATT GLA2.E NO- 
U.G. 5AGE GREEN 
U.G. COBALT BLUE 
U.G. PEACOCK BLUE 



13L 



106 



TIM GLAIE. 
E>LUE ENRICHMENT 



J»LATK 79 



238 



•Applied Arts : Clay- Pottery • 
•Proce.55 2. : Hamd Building Coil, and 5trip 

MATT GLAZE. - 5 TAIN No 6 03 • 
.SUBJECT : Container - flower bowl - Enric.hme.nt Rai.sed Leaf 



EULE5 9cl- tie 




MONMOUTH STONE. WARE 
Clay 

variations 



£ 



l-bHVv 



5o,—x 



K-Z 



W=7\ 



D 



1 



\ L 



Q 



n dz} 



EZ 



LL^> 



5^ 

^ — ( 



£ 



FKOM'ICEKAMIC STUDIO' 



Ba.se 



Glaze: 106 

ALUMIMA 



^ 



=f-5c 



/\CJD 



PbO .77 
H a O .M 

BaO . I Z 



AL a 3 .|4 



5, O p .8 



1.00 

sua-siLicious Matt glaze maturing at 

I070°C (I Q58° F) OR CONE .04 
R 1:1 



Plate 80 



239 



Aa~ 



•Applied Arts : Pottery* 
♦ Process 3 : hand Building, spout, handle, lid. 
Problems : Pourer (Creamer) container Cougar) 
Enrichment : Incised border • 

POJLE.S 9ol-Uc 
TYPE I TYPE 2 

4c 9c 9b 6d 
^ 




^t^:A^^v^ 



4-Td 



4-o 



r-F 

6/ 



^§S^s®s®^ 





BASE 



GLAZE5I 
STAIN €>4-0 

ALUMINA 



Acid 



Pb 


O 


• 5Z 1 


Co 


o 


.2 


Zn 


o 


.12 


K a 


o 


.16 



1 l.oo 



al,o 3 .38 



5i O, i.fo8 



5E5QUI SILICIOUS CLEAR GLAZE MATURING AT I070°C (IS5S°F) 

COME .04- 

TIN ENAMEL 

GLAZE 304- 



BA5E 

PBO *8 "i 

CAO .23 

K^O .09 

ZNO .13 



loo 



ALUMINA 



AL 2 3 .136 



ACID 



31 O z 1.69 

5NO . 4-o 



2.1 T 
B1-51LICIOUS OPAQUE. <3LAZLE MATURING AT lOTO'C (I355*F > ) 



Plate SI 



£40 



•Applied Art,5 -. Clay Pottery - 
• Process 3 : Hamd Buildimg-, Spout, Handle:. Lid 
clelar Glaze: • 
Subject : Pourer : Te.a Pot : Rattan or Reed Handle. 

n 

RULE 9 ex. 



AaC 




TYPE 3 



GLAZE\5I • 
STAIN 640 • 
Base alumina Acid 

PbO .52 

CaO .2. 

ZnO . I Z 

K z O .16 

MONOSILICIOUS CLEAR GLAZE /MATURING AT 
!07O e C (iq5"8TJ OR CONE .04 

r o i : i 



Al 2 3 .38 



S\O x M2. 



Plate 82 



£41 





•Applied ART5: Pottery. 




• PROCEL.S.3 A- ■ 


Poured Forms • Two and Three. Piece Moulds 






CLEAR GLAZE! • 




•subject: container 


• cup (Chinese) Enrichment- Initial • 






TYPE | 






<S 


ir sc J 




MATRIX DRAWING 




„ |±" 


ONE -EIGHTH ADDED FOR 






u 




POTTERS DRAWING 






p 


| 


1 


1 












K^ 


1 \ 


\ BOTTOn AOOED / 


U> 










\ &\ HMD yS 












^ ^ 








c 


') 


1 \ 


, \ 


o 










GLAZE 51 






BASE 




ALUMINA 


ACID 


Pb O .52. 








Co O .2 

2nO .12 




A. 2 Oj .3© 


51 O z I-7Z 


K 2 .16 








SE5QUI 5ILICIOU.3 


CLEAR GLA2£ MATURING 


AT 




I070°C (.195©*^) OR CONE .04- 








R O 2:3 





I'latk S.S 



24 2 



•Applied Arts : Pottery- 
Process 5" : slip Painting (.under glaze decoration) 
Problem: Tile or other flat or round form* 
Material: Clay, U.g. Colors, clear glaze • 

type I. 



m 



j 




4 — 4— J- + — 4 +- 

FROM 'COMPOSITION' flow 





note. : 



GLAZE 51 CCLEARj 



THICKNESS OF ALL. 
TILES i" FOOT ^VVIDE 
approximately §£ deep. 

GLAZE 5"/ STAIN 603 



PALETTE FOR WHITE C-LAZE 


Colors 


*> 

3 

£ 


Q 
-.J 


1 
O 

a 


c 
o 

3 


c 
o 

V 

a 
a 


c 
2 

CO 

-J 


V 

c 
o 

O 


o 

1 


c 
o 

m 

§ 
^ 1 


"a. 



o 


>- 


Wkite Slip 


ft(> 


90 


90 


<H 


90 


90 


90 


90 


90 


90 


90 


9o 


Cobalt 


4 


















/ 






U.G.MoTtOlue 




.5- 




z 


















Rrococ/t 




5 


Z 




















Chrome Greet 






6 


a 


















French Green 






2 


2 


















Chcc |5>-orrn 










*o 
















Golden Brown 












10 














Oranqe 














10 












Yellow 
















/O 










Crimson 


















(0 


9 






Lilac 






















iO 




Peart Gray 
























10 



palette for green glaze 


Colors 




<0 


o 


3 


C 

o 

V 

O 


1 


c 



c 

1! 

VD 

Q 


b 
t 

6 


c 
6 

c 


I 

3 

o 


'o 


White 5\fp 


9o 


9o 


94 


90 


qo 


<?o 


90 


9o 


95 


94 


95" 


PeococH Blue 


6 


j- 
















2 


4 


Claret Grown 


4 










10 












Matt B/t/<- 




5 


to 












Z 






Oro/iqe 








fo 
















Ye//ovv 










10 














French Green. 














IO 




J 




I 


0«»«/e Chrome 
















10 




4 





' FRCEL BALANCE • Cf 
' COMPOS iTion ' ^i DOW 



Plate 84 



243 



•Applied Arts : pottery* 
-» process 6 : Glaze testing • 
•Problems: various Poured Forms : tests to be marked «n 

U.G. BLACK AS FOLLOWS -CLEAR l-9<?, MATT 100 - l<?q, FRITTS 20O-29?. 
TIN ENAMEL. 300-39<7, REDUCTION «4-00-49<?, CRYSTALLINE S-OO-SlI, 
STAINS 600- 6*?<? STUDENTS' INITIALS UNDER GLAZE NUMBER, ' 

201-633 
C • E.- T- 



V 



\ 



J^f 




r 1 

MATT 




FRITT 




CRYSTALLINE. 



TIM 



SGRAFFITO 



Plate 8.5 



244 




Figure 471. — Results of the Pottery Course 



Figure 471 shows the actual results produced by the preceding 
course. The process to which the individual pieces belong is 
indicated by the small figure placed on the table and in front 
of the ware. The preceding sheets should be regarded in the light 
of suggestions for original thinking on the part of the student. 
They merely suggest technical guidance, in order that his progress 
may be sequential and fitted to his increasing skill. 

The glazes are stated in the terms of the ceramist with the 
proportions of base, alumina, and acid content of each glaze 
clearly stated. By referring to the textbooks mentioned in the 
preface, these glazes may be developed into the potter's formulae. 

In both metal and pottery courses, two or more types are 
frequently represented upon one plate. These types will allow 
the teacher to assign a more difficult problem to the student 
with some previous experience. 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Accenting bands in wood 105 

Accentuation of functional parts... 70 

Adapting data to material 127 

Analogous lines 203 

Analysis, intelligent 7 

Andiron design 53 

Aniline wood dyes 109 

Appendage design 43-40 

Appendage, use of 43 

Appendages 43 

Appendages and primary mass 4.5 

Appendages, contour enrichment of 88 

Appendages, design violations 43 

Appendages in clay 47 

Appendages, industrial applications 47 
Appendages, influence of tools and 

materials 53 

Appendages in metal 51 

Appendages in wood 45 

Artificial objects 129 

Architectural, horizontal divisions 

for 21 

Bands, wood inlay 105 

Backgrounds 113,201 

Base metals, enrichment of 87 

Base and precious metals, surface 

enrichment of 100, 1(53, 105, 107 

Borders for wood 107 

Building 105 

Candlesticks 81 

Carving 103 

Carving and piercing 1 H 

Carving, design steps for 105 

Ceilings 202 205 

Center zone enrichment 121 

Chasing 103 

Chip carving 115 



PAGE 

Chroma 107 

Chromatic intensity, full 105 

Clay, coloring for underglaze 151 

Clay, decorative processes 145 

Clay, incising 147 

Clay, inlay 140 

Clay, introduction of pigments 149 

Clay, modeling 117 

Clay, piercing 147 

Clay, slip painting 140 

Clay, surface enrichment for 145 

Clay, surface enrichment, structural 

classification for 151 

Clay, underglaze painting 151 

Color for clay enrichment 200 

Color for small areas 210 

Color harmony 201 

Color pigments 194 

Color pigments, application of 194 

Color symbols 198 

Color systems 194 

Commercial pottery 158 

Complementary hues 214 

Conservative use of ornament 101 

Contrasted hues 203 

Containers 81 

Continuity and contrast 03 

Contour enrichment, influence of 

materials 05 

Contour enrichment, methods of 

varying 70 

Contour enrichment of clay, need of 77 

Contour enrichment, evolution of. . 05 

Contour enrichment, purpose of. . . . 59 
Contour enrichment, requirements 

of 59 

Contour enrichment, systematic de- 
velopment of 81 



2 !•; 



246 



Contour versus surface enrichment 
Corners, contour enrichment of.... 

Correlation, ideal 

Covers, design for 

Criticism, clear 

Criticism, non-technical 

Curve of beauty 

Curve of force 

Curve of force, approximate 

Curves for contour enrichment 

Curves, grouping of 

Curves of extravagance 



'AGE 

185 
88 
11 
49 
7 
7 
91 
61 
61 
59 
63 
73 



Dependent surface enrichment 167 

Details, contour enrichment of 93 

Design evolution, major divisions. . . 9 

Design evolution, steps in 11 

Design, preliminary thought 17 

Dominant hue 204 

Dynamic curves and areas Ill 

Edges, contour enrichment of 87 

Elements 157 

Enameling 163, 212, 213, 215 

Enrichment for small metal areas. . 179 

Enrichment, need and value of 57 

Enrichment of large metal areas. 179, 183 

Enrichment, types of 57 

Essentials of good surface enrich- 
ment 179 

Exposures 206, 207 

Flat surfaces in base and precious 

metal 185 

Fobs, design of 169 

Four vertical minor divisions 139 

Free balance 129 

Free enrichment 121 

Free minor division treatment 141 

Free ornament 117 

Freehand curves 30, 51, 63 

Full size drawing, value of 23 

Functional parts, enrichment of. . . . 88 



PAGE 

Glazes for pottery 149 

Glazes related to interior decoration 214 

Glazes, stains for 209 

Greek scroll 93 

Handles, design for 49 

Harmonious color, need of 194 

Harmony of color 210 

High cylindrical forms in clay 157 

High cylindrical forms in metal .... 191 

Historic ornament in hardware 186 

Horizontal and vertical minor divi- 
sions 137 

Horizontal divisions, architectural 

precedent 25 

Horizontal divisions, nature and 

need of 19 

Horizontal divisions, steps in de- 
signing 21 

Horizontal minor divisions 139 

Hue and hue rectangles 195 

Hue groupings 203 

Industrial problems, requirements of 9 

Inceptive axes 107, 121, 161 

Inceptive axes for marginal enrich- 
ment 119 

Inlaying 101-103 

Intermediate points, contour en- 
richment of 89 

Ionic volute 91 

Leading lines, curved 108 

Links 45 

Links, contour enrichment of 93 

Low cylindrical forms in clay 157 

Low cylindrical forms in metal 187 

Major design division, first 9 

Major design division, second 9 

Major design division, third 11 

Marginal zone enrichment 118 

Material, adapting data to 127 

Material, economy of 161 



[247] 



PAGE 

Material, relation to surface enrich- 
ment 101 

Metallic oxides 210 

Methods, architectural design 13 

Methods, industrial design 13 

Minor details 141 

Minor subdivisions in wood 133 

Moorish ornament 107 

Mouldings Gl 

One vertical division 35 

Outlines, free and dependent 87,91 

(See Contours.) 

Oxidation 513 

Panels 117, 123, 125, 127, 129 

Panel design, steps in 125 

Parts differing in function 77 

Pendants and chains, design of.... 173 

Pierced enrichment 123 

Pigment table 195 

Pigments, wall and ceiling 205 

Pins and brooches, design of 107 

Point of concentration 115, 161 

Point of concentration for marginal 

enrichment 119 

Porcelain painting 151 

Pourers 81 

Precious metals, processes of en- 
richment 101, 103, 105, 109 

Primary hues 198 

Primary masses 13 

Primary mass, drawing of 15 

Primary mass, divisions of 19 

Primary masses, vertical and hori- 
zontal 15 

Primary masses, proportions of 15 

Proportionate distribution 210 

Ratios, unsatisfactory 17 

Rectangular panels 127 

Rings, design of 109 



PAGE 

Sequential progression 135 

Service, influence of 9, 13, 15 

Sets, designing of 83 

Shades 197 

Shallow circular forms in clay 155 

Shallow circular forms in metal 187 

Side walls 202-205 

Silver, color for 215 

Silver, contour enrichment of 93 

Silver, free outline enrichment 97 

Silver, motives for contour enrich- 
ment 97 

Spouts, design of 49 

Square and rectangular areas in 

clay 153 

Square panels 125 

Standard hues 195 

Standard hues, locating 190 

Stones, cutting 95 

Stones, relation to contour 95 

Stones, relation to metal 173 

Structural forms, classification 100 

Structural forms, classification for 

clay surface enrichment 151 

Structural reinforcement 118 

Surface design evolution 180 

Surface enrichment, nature and 

need of 99 

Surfaces, when and where to enrich 99 

Tangential junctions 51, 93 

Technical processes for metal 103 

Technical rendering 101 

Terminals, contour enrichment of. 89-91 

Three horizontal divisions 29 

Three horizontal divisions in clay... 30 
Three horizontal divisions in metal. 30 
Three horizontal divisions in wood. 29 

Three vertical divisions 37 

Three vertical divisions in clay 39 

Three vertical divisions in metal.... 41 
Three vertical divisions in wood.. . . 39 



34S 



PAGE 

Tints 190 

Transitional types in furniture 139 

Two horizontal divisions 3.5 

Two horizontal divisions in clay. ... 37 

Two horizontal divisions in metal. . 37 

Two horizontal divisions in wood.. . 35 

Two vertical divisions 35 

Two vertical divisions in clay 87 

Two vertical divisions in metal 87 

Two vertical divisions in wood 85 

Unit of measurement for vertical 

curves 79 

Unity 39 

Unity in clay design curves 77 

Value lines 190 

Varied panels 139 

Vertical divisions, architectural pre- 
cedent 83 

Vertical divisions, more than three. 41 



PAGE 

Vertical divisions, nature and need. 33 
Vertical and horizontal division 

evolution 40 

Vertical sections and their minor 

divisions 133-13.5 

Vocabulary, designer's 105 

Walls and ceilings 303-301 

Walls and wood work 303-303 

Warm and cold colors 198 

Wood finishes, opaque 300 

Wood, methods of surface enrich- 
ment 101 

Wood stains 198 

Wood stains, chroma range 305 

Wood stain mixing 199, 300 

Wood stain rendering 195 

Wood stains, value range 301 

Wrought iron enrichment 91 

Zones of enrichment 118 



\ 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



DEC El 



r-imt 



ffft 

JUK 9 



1977 



1S8. 

mi 



Form L9-Series 4939 












DS 



3 1158 00022 6869